The human genome contains numerous genes whose protein products are unknown in terms of structure, interaction partner, expression, and function. To unravel the function of these orphan genes, it is of particular value to isolate native forms of protein and peptide products derived from these genes. From human blood ultrafiltrate, we characterized a novel gene-encoded, cysteine-rich, and cationic peptide that we termed liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2). We identified several circulating forms of LEAP-2 differing in their amino-terminal length, all containing a core structure with two disulfide bonds formed by cysteine residues in relative 1-3 and 2-4 positions. Molecular cloning of the cDNA showed that LEAP-2 is synthesized as a 77-residue precursor, which is predominantly expressed in the liver and highly conserved among mammals. This makes it a unique peptide that does not exhibit similarity with any known human peptide regarding its primary structure, disulfide motif, and expression. Analysis of the LEAP-2 gene resulted in the identification of an alternative promoter and at least four different splicing variants, with the two dominating transcripts being tissue-specifically expressed. The largest native LEAP-2 form of 40 amino acid residues is generated from the precursor at a putative cleavage site for a furin-like endoprotease. In contrast to smaller LEAP-2 variants, this peptide exhibited dose-dependent antimicrobial activity against selected microbial model organisms. LEAP-2 shares some characteristic properties with classic peptide hormones and it is expected that the isolation of this novel peptide will help to unravel its physiological role.
Elongation of the catalytic loop of Azotobacter vinelandii rhodanese changed selectivity from sulfur to phosphorus compounds as substrates / A. Carpen, S. Pagani, F. Forlani. - In: PROTEIN SCIENCE. - ISSN 0961-8368. - 12:suppl. 1(2003 Mar), pp. 143-143. ((Intervento presentato al 5. convegno European Symposium of the Protein Society tenutosi a Firenze nel 2003.
|Titolo:||Elongation of the catalytic loop of Azotobacter vinelandii rhodanese changed selectivity from sulfur to phosphorus compounds as substrates|
CARPEN, ARISTODEMO (Primo)
PAGANI, SILVIA GIOVANNA (Secondo)
FORLANI, FABIO (Ultimo)
|Parole Chiave:||Alternative splicing; Antimicrobial activity; Disulfide bonds; Hemofiltrate; Liver; Peptide; Secretion|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/10 - Biochimica|
|Data di pubblicazione:||mar-2003|
|Enti collegati al convegno:||The Protein Society|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1110/ps.0213603|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|