To assess sex-related characteristics in facial movements, and to define a set of reference normal values, 20 healthy young adults (10 men, 10 women) performed six standardized facial movements (maximum smile; free smile; "surprise" with closed mouth; "surprise" with open mouth; right- and left-side eye closures). The three-dimensional coordinates of 21 soft-tissue facial landmarks were recorded by an optoelectronic motion analyzer, their movements computed, and standardized for facial dimensions. Asymmetry indices were calculated. The mouth area had the largest movements. Sex-related differences were found only for the superciliare landmark (men had larger movements than women, p<0.001). Asymmetries in the eyes, mouth and nose were similar in both sexes (p>0.01), with a significant effect of movement (p<0.001): eye and mouth asymmetry was larger during the asymmetric eye closures than during the symmetric movements. The right-side asymmetric movements were somewhat larger than the left-side ones. The total facial movement did not differ between sexes; the "surprise with mouth open" movement had the largest landmark displacements (p<0.001). In conclusion, normal young adult men and women had similar standardized facial movements, except in the forehead. Some individual asymmetry was found in symmetric facial animations; some synkinesis was found even in normal adults.
A three-dimensional study of facial mimicry in healthy young adults / C. Sforza, D. Galante, Y.F. Shirai, V.F. Ferrario. - In: JOURNAL OF CRANIO-MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY. - ISSN 1010-5182. - 38:6(2010), pp. 409-415.
|Titolo:||A three-dimensional study of facial mimicry in healthy young adults|
SFORZA, CHIARELLA (Primo)
GALANTE, DOMENICO (Secondo)
SHIRAI, YURI FRANCESCA (Penultimo)
FERRARIO, VIRGILIO FERRUCCIO (Ultimo)
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore BIO/16 - Anatomia Umana|
Settore MED/28 - Malattie Odontostomatologiche
Settore MED/29 - Chirurgia Maxillofacciale
Settore MED/19 - Chirurgia Plastica
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2009.10.018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|