This study aimed at investigating the water activity threshold for the polyphenol oxidase activity in Golden Delicious apple. Freeze-dried powders obtained from blanched and unblanched apples were equilibrated and stored at four water activity levels, ranging from 0.11 to 0.56, at 20 and 40 °C, to differentiate between nonenzymatic and enzymatic browning. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, phloridzin, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan 3-ols, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, the antioxidant activity values, and the Hunter colorimetric parameters of apple products were analyzed. Results showed that no polyphenol oxidase activity occurred in unblanched dehydrated apples stored at water activity levels between 0.11 and 0.32. In this water activity range, blanching pre-treatment accelerated the Maillard reaction in the products stored at 40 °C, as observed from both higher 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation and more intense red color development in blanched apples with respect to the unblanched ones. At the water activity level of 0.56, both increased redness and higher antioxidant degradation were observed in the unblanched apples with respect to the blanched apples, indicating that the threshold water activity for polyphenol oxidase was in the range 0.32–0.56. Among apple antioxidants, epicatechin was mostly affected by polyphenol oxidase activity, either by direct oxidation or by a coupled oxidation mechanism. Therefore, ‘‘mild’’ pre-heating treatments or no pre-treatments could be proposed when the apple is to be stored and used at water activity below 0.32, whereas blanching should be applied for intermediate moisture apples or in food applications where moisture transfer from other ingredients could bring apples above this critical water activity level.
|Titolo:||Polyphenol oxidase activity and implications on the quality of intermediate moisture and dried apples|
LAVELLI, VERA AGNESE (Primo)
|Parole Chiave:||Antioxidant; Apples; Color; Dehydration; Polyphenol oxidase|
|Settore Scientifico Disciplinare:||Settore AGR/15 - Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s00217-010-1256-0|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01 - Articolo su periodico|