Background: It is amply demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) has a high impact on lung tumor progression worsening lung cancer patient prognosis and response to therapies. Alteration of immune cell types and functions in smokers' lungs have been strictly related with smoke detrimental effects. However, the role of CS in dictating an inflammatory or immunosuppressive lung microenvironment still needs to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of in vitro exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) focusing on macrophages. Methods: Immortalized murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells were cultured in the presence of CS extract and their polarization has been assessed by Real-time PCR and cytofluorimetric analysis, viability has been assessed by SRB assay and 3D-cultures and activation by exposure to Poly(I:C). Moreover, interaction with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) murine cell models in the presence of CS extract were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Results: Obtained results indicate that CS induces macrophages polarization towards the M2 phenotype and M2-phenotype macrophages are resistant to the CS toxic activity. Moreover, CS impairs TLR3-mediated M2-M1 phenotype shift thus contributing to the M2 enrichment in lung smokers. Conclusions: These findings indicate that, in lung cancer microenvironment of smokers, CS can contribute to the M2-phenotype macrophages prevalence by different mechanisms, ultimately, driving an anti-inflammatory, likely immunosuppressive, microenvironment in lung cancer smokers.

Cigarette smoke sustains immunosuppressive microenvironment inducing M2 macrophage polarization and viability in lung cancer settings / F. Bianchi, V. Le Noci, G. Bernardo, N. Gagliano, G. Colombo, M. Sommariva, M. Palazzo, I. Dalle-Donne, A. Milzani, S. Pupa, E. Tagliabue, L. Sfondrini. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - 19:5(2024), pp. e0303875.1-e0303875.18. [10.1371/journal.pone.0303875]

Cigarette smoke sustains immunosuppressive microenvironment inducing M2 macrophage polarization and viability in lung cancer settings

F. Bianchi
Primo
;
V. Le Noci
Secondo
;
G. Bernardo;N. Gagliano;G. Colombo;M. Sommariva;I. Dalle-Donne;A. Milzani;L. Sfondrini
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

Background: It is amply demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) has a high impact on lung tumor progression worsening lung cancer patient prognosis and response to therapies. Alteration of immune cell types and functions in smokers' lungs have been strictly related with smoke detrimental effects. However, the role of CS in dictating an inflammatory or immunosuppressive lung microenvironment still needs to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of in vitro exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) focusing on macrophages. Methods: Immortalized murine macrophages RAW 264.7 cells were cultured in the presence of CS extract and their polarization has been assessed by Real-time PCR and cytofluorimetric analysis, viability has been assessed by SRB assay and 3D-cultures and activation by exposure to Poly(I:C). Moreover, interaction with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC1) murine cell models in the presence of CS extract were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Results: Obtained results indicate that CS induces macrophages polarization towards the M2 phenotype and M2-phenotype macrophages are resistant to the CS toxic activity. Moreover, CS impairs TLR3-mediated M2-M1 phenotype shift thus contributing to the M2 enrichment in lung smokers. Conclusions: These findings indicate that, in lung cancer microenvironment of smokers, CS can contribute to the M2-phenotype macrophages prevalence by different mechanisms, ultimately, driving an anti-inflammatory, likely immunosuppressive, microenvironment in lung cancer smokers.
Settore BIO/17 - Istologia
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
Settore BIO/16 - Anatomia Umana
2024
22-mag-2024
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1053970
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