Compared to their closest ape relatives, humans walk bipedally with lower metabolic cost (C) and less mechanical work to move their body center of mass (external mechanical work, WEXT). However, differences in WEXT are not large enough to explain the observed lower C: humans may also do less work to move limbs relative to their body center of mass (internal kinetic mechanical work, WINT,k). From published data, we estimated differences in WINT,k, total mechanical work (WTOT), and efficiency between humans and chimpanzees walking bipedally. Estimated WINT,k is ~ 60% lower in humans due to changes in limb mass distribution, lower stride frequency and duty factor. When summing WINT,k to WEXT, between-species differences in efficiency are smaller than those in C; variations in WTOT correlate with between-species, but not within-species, differences in C. These results partially support the hypothesis that the low cost of human walking is due to the concerted low WINT,k and WEXT.

The work to swing limbs in humans versus chimpanzees and its relation to the metabolic cost of walking / F. Luciano, L. Ruggiero, A.E. Minetti, G. Pavei. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 14:1(2024), pp. 8970.1-8970.19. [10.1038/s41598-024-59171-8]

The work to swing limbs in humans versus chimpanzees and its relation to the metabolic cost of walking

F. Luciano
Primo
;
L. Ruggiero
;
A.E. Minetti
Penultimo
;
G. Pavei
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

Compared to their closest ape relatives, humans walk bipedally with lower metabolic cost (C) and less mechanical work to move their body center of mass (external mechanical work, WEXT). However, differences in WEXT are not large enough to explain the observed lower C: humans may also do less work to move limbs relative to their body center of mass (internal kinetic mechanical work, WINT,k). From published data, we estimated differences in WINT,k, total mechanical work (WTOT), and efficiency between humans and chimpanzees walking bipedally. Estimated WINT,k is ~ 60% lower in humans due to changes in limb mass distribution, lower stride frequency and duty factor. When summing WINT,k to WEXT, between-species differences in efficiency are smaller than those in C; variations in WTOT correlate with between-species, but not within-species, differences in C. These results partially support the hypothesis that the low cost of human walking is due to the concerted low WINT,k and WEXT.
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
2024
18-apr-2024
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Luciano et al. 2024 - The work to swing limbs in humansversus chimpanzees and its relation to the metabolic cost of walking + Suppl Mat.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Article
Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 2.03 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.03 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1050449
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact