Background: Increasing evidence suggests a double-faceted role of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) following infection by a variety of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Although α-syn accumulation is known to contribute to cell toxicity and the development and/or exacerbation of neuropathological manifestations, it is also a key to sustaining anti-viral innate immunity. Consistently with α-syn aggregation as a hallmark of Parkinson's disease, most studies investigating the biological function of α-syn focused on neural cells, while reports on the role of α-syn in periphery are limited, especially in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Results herein obtained by real time qPCR, immunofluorescence and western blot indicate that α-syn upregulation in peripheral cells occurs as a Type-I Interferon (IFN)-related response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Noteworthy, this effect mostly involves α-syn multimers, and the dynamic α-syn multimer:monomer ratio. Administration of excess α-syn monomers promoted SARS-CoV-2 replication along with downregulation of IFN-Stimulated Genes (ISGs) in epithelial lung cells, which was associated with reduced α-syn multimers and α-syn multimer:monomer ratio. These effects were prevented by combined administration of IFN-β, which hindered virus replication and upregulated ISGs, meanwhile increasing both α-syn multimers and α-syn multimer:monomer ratio in the absence of cell toxicity. Finally, in endothelial cells displaying abortive SARS-CoV-2 replication, α-syn multimers, and multimer:monomer ratio were not reduced following exposure to the virus and exogenous α-syn, suggesting that only productive viral infection impairs α-syn multimerization and multimer:monomer equilibrium. Conclusions: Our study provides novel insights into the biology of α-syn, showing that its dynamic conformations are implicated in the innate immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection in peripheral cells. In particular, our results suggest that promotion of non-toxic α-syn multimers likely occurs as a Type-I IFN-related biological response which partakes in the suppression of viral replication. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings in neuronal cells as well as animal models, and to ascertain the nature of such α-syn conformations.

Alpha-synuclein dynamics bridge Type-I Interferon response and SARS-CoV-2 replication in peripheral cells / F. Limanaqi, S. Zecchini, I. Saulle, S. Strizzi, C. Vanetti, M. Garziano, G. Cappelletti, D. Parolin, S. Caccia, D. Trabattoni, C. Fenizia, M. Clerici, M. Biasin. - In: BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 0717-6287. - 57:1(2024 Jan 09), pp. 2.1-2.21. [10.1186/s40659-023-00482-x]

Alpha-synuclein dynamics bridge Type-I Interferon response and SARS-CoV-2 replication in peripheral cells

F. Limanaqi
Primo
;
S. Zecchini
Secondo
;
I. Saulle;S. Strizzi;C. Vanetti;M. Garziano;G. Cappelletti;D. Parolin;S. Caccia;D. Trabattoni;C. Fenizia;M. Clerici
Penultimo
;
M. Biasin
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

Background: Increasing evidence suggests a double-faceted role of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) following infection by a variety of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Although α-syn accumulation is known to contribute to cell toxicity and the development and/or exacerbation of neuropathological manifestations, it is also a key to sustaining anti-viral innate immunity. Consistently with α-syn aggregation as a hallmark of Parkinson's disease, most studies investigating the biological function of α-syn focused on neural cells, while reports on the role of α-syn in periphery are limited, especially in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results: Results herein obtained by real time qPCR, immunofluorescence and western blot indicate that α-syn upregulation in peripheral cells occurs as a Type-I Interferon (IFN)-related response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Noteworthy, this effect mostly involves α-syn multimers, and the dynamic α-syn multimer:monomer ratio. Administration of excess α-syn monomers promoted SARS-CoV-2 replication along with downregulation of IFN-Stimulated Genes (ISGs) in epithelial lung cells, which was associated with reduced α-syn multimers and α-syn multimer:monomer ratio. These effects were prevented by combined administration of IFN-β, which hindered virus replication and upregulated ISGs, meanwhile increasing both α-syn multimers and α-syn multimer:monomer ratio in the absence of cell toxicity. Finally, in endothelial cells displaying abortive SARS-CoV-2 replication, α-syn multimers, and multimer:monomer ratio were not reduced following exposure to the virus and exogenous α-syn, suggesting that only productive viral infection impairs α-syn multimerization and multimer:monomer equilibrium. Conclusions: Our study provides novel insights into the biology of α-syn, showing that its dynamic conformations are implicated in the innate immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection in peripheral cells. In particular, our results suggest that promotion of non-toxic α-syn multimers likely occurs as a Type-I IFN-related biological response which partakes in the suppression of viral replication. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings in neuronal cells as well as animal models, and to ascertain the nature of such α-syn conformations.
Alpha-synuclein (SNCA); Alpha-synuclein multimer:monomer ratio; Endothelial cells; Epithelial lung cells; Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISG); PBMC-epithelial cell co-culture; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); Viral infection
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
9-gen-2024
https://biolres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40659-023-00482-x
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1024137
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