n this paper, we reported the results obtained from toxicological investigations on bone samples collected from human remains of the 17th century in Milano (Italy). The aim of this study was to search for analytical signs of the administration of medical or recreative plants in the population of Milano during the 17th century. Nine femoral bone samples were extracted via Solid-Phase Extraction and analyzed via Thermo Scientific™ TSQ Fortis™ II Triple-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. As a result, archeotoxicological analyses revealed the presence of two cannabinoids (Delta-9-tetrahydrocan- nabinol and cannabidiol) of the cannabis plant present in two out of nine bone samples (that correspond to 22% of the biological samples analyzed). The presence of these two alkaloids evidences the use of the cannabis plant in the Italian population during the 17th century. The documentation related to the pharmacopeia used to treat patients in the Ca’ Granda is still present in the archives of the hospital. However, this plant was not listed inside the pharmacopeia, suggesting that the plant was not administered as medical treatment at the time in the hospital. Thus, we hypothesize that the subjects under investigation used cannabis as a recreational substance, although other sources of exposure, such as self-medication, administration as a medical plant by other doctors outside of the Ca’ Granda, occupational and involuntary exposure, cannot be excluded. In conclusion, this study reports the first physical evidence of cannabis use in Modern Age in Italy but also in Europe.

Forensic toxicological analyses reveal the use of cannabis in Milano (Italy) in the 1600's / G. Giordano, M. Mattia, M. Boracchi, L. Biehler‐gomez, M. Cummaudo, A. Porro, M. Caccianiga, F. Sardanelli, F. Slavazzi, P. Maria Galimberti, D. DI CANDIA, C. Cattaneo. - In: JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE. - ISSN 1095-9238. - 160:(2023 Dec), pp. 105873.1-105873.6. [10.1016/j.jas.2023.105873]

Forensic toxicological analyses reveal the use of cannabis in Milano (Italy) in the 1600's

G. Giordano
Primo
;
M. Mattia
Secondo
;
L. Biehler‐gomez;M. Cummaudo;A. Porro;M. Caccianiga;F. Sardanelli;F. Slavazzi;D. DI CANDIA
Penultimo
;
C. Cattaneo
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

n this paper, we reported the results obtained from toxicological investigations on bone samples collected from human remains of the 17th century in Milano (Italy). The aim of this study was to search for analytical signs of the administration of medical or recreative plants in the population of Milano during the 17th century. Nine femoral bone samples were extracted via Solid-Phase Extraction and analyzed via Thermo Scientific™ TSQ Fortis™ II Triple-Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. As a result, archeotoxicological analyses revealed the presence of two cannabinoids (Delta-9-tetrahydrocan- nabinol and cannabidiol) of the cannabis plant present in two out of nine bone samples (that correspond to 22% of the biological samples analyzed). The presence of these two alkaloids evidences the use of the cannabis plant in the Italian population during the 17th century. The documentation related to the pharmacopeia used to treat patients in the Ca’ Granda is still present in the archives of the hospital. However, this plant was not listed inside the pharmacopeia, suggesting that the plant was not administered as medical treatment at the time in the hospital. Thus, we hypothesize that the subjects under investigation used cannabis as a recreational substance, although other sources of exposure, such as self-medication, administration as a medical plant by other doctors outside of the Ca’ Granda, occupational and involuntary exposure, cannot be excluded. In conclusion, this study reports the first physical evidence of cannabis use in Modern Age in Italy but also in Europe.
Archaeotoxicology; Cannabis; Toxicology on archaeological remains; Toxicology on bones
Settore MED/43 - Medicina Legale
dic-2023
11-ott-2023
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Cannabis 2023-11-03 08_10_24.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Article
Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 3.17 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.17 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/1016034
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact