Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains an important clinical challenge with a mortality rate of 35–45%. It is being increasingly demonstrated that the improvement of outcomes requires a tailored, individualized approach to therapy, guided by a detailed understanding of each patient’s pathophysiology. In patients with ARDS, disturbances in the physiological matching of alveolar ventilation (V) and pulmonary perfusion (Q) (V/Q mismatch) are a hallmark derangement. The perfusion of collapsed or consolidated lung units gives rise to intrapulmonary shunting and arterial hypoxemia, whereas the ventilation of non-perfused lung zones increases physiological dead-space, which potentially necessitates increased ventilation to avoid hypercapnia. Beyond its impact on gas exchange, V/Q mismatch is a predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with ARDS; more recently, its role in ventilation-induced lung injury and worsening lung edema has been described. Innovations in bedside imaging technologies such as electrical impedance tomography readily allow clinicians to determine the regional distributions of V and Q, as well as the adequacy of their matching, providing new insights into the phenotyping, prognostication, and clinical management of patients with ARDS. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology, identification, consequences, and treatment of V/Q mismatch in the setting of ARDS, employing experimental data from clinical and preclinical studies as support.

Pathophysiology and Clinical Meaning of Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatch in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome / D. Slobod, A. Damia, M. Leali, E. Spinelli, T. Mauri. - In: BIOLOGY. - ISSN 2079-7737. - 12:1(2023), pp. 67.1-67.18. [10.3390/biology12010067]

Pathophysiology and Clinical Meaning of Ventilation-Perfusion Mismatch in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

A. Damia
Secondo
;
M. Leali;T. Mauri
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains an important clinical challenge with a mortality rate of 35–45%. It is being increasingly demonstrated that the improvement of outcomes requires a tailored, individualized approach to therapy, guided by a detailed understanding of each patient’s pathophysiology. In patients with ARDS, disturbances in the physiological matching of alveolar ventilation (V) and pulmonary perfusion (Q) (V/Q mismatch) are a hallmark derangement. The perfusion of collapsed or consolidated lung units gives rise to intrapulmonary shunting and arterial hypoxemia, whereas the ventilation of non-perfused lung zones increases physiological dead-space, which potentially necessitates increased ventilation to avoid hypercapnia. Beyond its impact on gas exchange, V/Q mismatch is a predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with ARDS; more recently, its role in ventilation-induced lung injury and worsening lung edema has been described. Innovations in bedside imaging technologies such as electrical impedance tomography readily allow clinicians to determine the regional distributions of V and Q, as well as the adequacy of their matching, providing new insights into the phenotyping, prognostication, and clinical management of patients with ARDS. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology, identification, consequences, and treatment of V/Q mismatch in the setting of ARDS, employing experimental data from clinical and preclinical studies as support.
acute respiratory distress syndrome; electrical impedance tomography; perfusion; ventilation; ventilation-induced lung injury
Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia
2023
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/971014
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