Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide responsible for the control of the reproductive functions. It shows C- and N-terminal aminoacid modifications and two other distinct isoforms have been so far identified. The biological effects of GnRH are mediated by binding to highaffinity G-protein couple receptors (GnRHR), showing characteristic very short C tail. In mammals, including humans, GnRH-producing neurons originate in the embryonic nasal compartment and during early embryogenesis they undergo rapid migration towards the hypothalamus; the increasing knowledge of such mechanisms improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to infertility. The pharmacological use of GnRH, or its synthetic peptide and non-peptide agonists or antagonists, provides a valid tool for reproductive disorders and assisted reproduction technology (ART). The presence of GnRHR in several organs and tissues indicates additional functions of the peptide. The identification of a GnRH/GnRHR system in the human endometrium, ovary, and prostate has extended the functions of the peptide to the physiology and tumor transformation of such tissues. Likely, the activity of a GnRH/GnRHR system at the level of the hippocampus, as well as its decreased expression in mice brain aging, raised interest in its possible involvement in neurogenesis and neuronal functions. In conclusion, GnRH/GnRHR appears to be a fascinating biological system that exerts several possibly integrated pleiotropic actions in the complex control of reproductive functions, tumor growth, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection. This review aims to provide an overview of the physiology of GnRH and the pharmacological applications of its synthetic analogs in the management of reproductive and non-reproductive diseases.

Physiological and Pharmacological overview of the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone / L. Casati, S. Ciceri, R. Maggi, D. Bottai. - In: BIOCHEMICAL PHARMACOLOGY. - ISSN 0006-2952. - 212:(2023 Jun), pp. 115553.1-115553.17. [10.1016/j.bcp.2023.115553]

Physiological and Pharmacological overview of the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

L. Casati
Primo
;
S. Ciceri
Secondo
;
R. Maggi
Penultimo
;
D. Bottai
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide responsible for the control of the reproductive functions. It shows C- and N-terminal aminoacid modifications and two other distinct isoforms have been so far identified. The biological effects of GnRH are mediated by binding to highaffinity G-protein couple receptors (GnRHR), showing characteristic very short C tail. In mammals, including humans, GnRH-producing neurons originate in the embryonic nasal compartment and during early embryogenesis they undergo rapid migration towards the hypothalamus; the increasing knowledge of such mechanisms improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to infertility. The pharmacological use of GnRH, or its synthetic peptide and non-peptide agonists or antagonists, provides a valid tool for reproductive disorders and assisted reproduction technology (ART). The presence of GnRHR in several organs and tissues indicates additional functions of the peptide. The identification of a GnRH/GnRHR system in the human endometrium, ovary, and prostate has extended the functions of the peptide to the physiology and tumor transformation of such tissues. Likely, the activity of a GnRH/GnRHR system at the level of the hippocampus, as well as its decreased expression in mice brain aging, raised interest in its possible involvement in neurogenesis and neuronal functions. In conclusion, GnRH/GnRHR appears to be a fascinating biological system that exerts several possibly integrated pleiotropic actions in the complex control of reproductive functions, tumor growth, neurogenesis, and neuroprotection. This review aims to provide an overview of the physiology of GnRH and the pharmacological applications of its synthetic analogs in the management of reproductive and non-reproductive diseases.
GnRH, pituitary gonadotropes, GnRH agonists, GnRH antagonists, non-peptide GnRH antagonists;
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
Settore CHIM/08 - Chimica Farmaceutica
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
giu-2023
17-apr-2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/967042
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