Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are effective, well-tolerated, and safe glucose-lowering compounds for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2i benefit encompasses protection from heart and kidney failure, independently of the presence of diabetes. In addition, SGLT2i consistently reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and, although with some heterogeneity between specific members of the class, favourably affect the risk of cardiovascular outcomes. The molecular mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular favourable effect are not fully clarified. Studies testing the efficacy of SGLT2i in human cohorts and experimental models of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) have reported significant differences in circulating levels and composition of lipoprotein classes. In randomized clinical trials, small but significant increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been observed, with a still undefined clinical significance; on the other hand, favourable (although modest) effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides have been reported. At the molecular level, glycosuria may promote a starving-like state that ultimately leads to a metabolic improvement through the mobilization of fatty acids from the adipose tissue and their oxidation for the production of ketone bodies. This, however, may also fuel hepatic cholesterol synthesis, thus inhibiting atherogenic lipoprotein uptake from the liver. Long-term studies collecting detailed information on lipid-lowering therapies at baseline and during the trials with SGLT2i, as well as regularly monitoring lipid profiles are warranted to disentangle the potential implications of SGLT2i in modulating lipoprotein-mediated atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk.

Neutral effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on lipoprotein metabolism: From clinical evidence to molecular mechanisms / E. Osto, F. Bonacina, A. Pirillo, G.D. Norata. - In: PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH. - ISSN 1096-1186. - 188:(2023 Feb), pp. 106667.1-106667.8. [10.1016/j.phrs.2023.106667]

Neutral effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on lipoprotein metabolism: From clinical evidence to molecular mechanisms

F. Bonacina
Secondo
;
G.D. Norata
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are effective, well-tolerated, and safe glucose-lowering compounds for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2i benefit encompasses protection from heart and kidney failure, independently of the presence of diabetes. In addition, SGLT2i consistently reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and, although with some heterogeneity between specific members of the class, favourably affect the risk of cardiovascular outcomes. The molecular mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular favourable effect are not fully clarified. Studies testing the efficacy of SGLT2i in human cohorts and experimental models of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) have reported significant differences in circulating levels and composition of lipoprotein classes. In randomized clinical trials, small but significant increases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been observed, with a still undefined clinical significance; on the other hand, favourable (although modest) effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides have been reported. At the molecular level, glycosuria may promote a starving-like state that ultimately leads to a metabolic improvement through the mobilization of fatty acids from the adipose tissue and their oxidation for the production of ketone bodies. This, however, may also fuel hepatic cholesterol synthesis, thus inhibiting atherogenic lipoprotein uptake from the liver. Long-term studies collecting detailed information on lipid-lowering therapies at baseline and during the trials with SGLT2i, as well as regularly monitoring lipid profiles are warranted to disentangle the potential implications of SGLT2i in modulating lipoprotein-mediated atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk.
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; Lipids; Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2;
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/963158
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