Objectives: The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) that occurs during weight loss secondary to low-calorie diet can lead to numerous and deleterious consequences. We performed a review to evaluate the state of the art on metabolic and nutritional correlates of loss of fat free mass during low calorie diet and treatment for maintaining fat free mass. Methods: This review included 44 eligible studies. There are various diet strategies to maintain FFM during a low-calorie diet, including adoption of a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD) and taking an adequate amount of specific nutrients (vitamin D, leucine, whey protein). Results: Regarding the numerous and various low-calorie diet proposals for achieving weight loss, the comparison of VLCKD with prudent low-calorie diet found that FFM was practically unaffected by VLCKD. There are numerous possible mechanisms for this, involving insulin and the insulin-like growth factor-1–growth hormone axis, which acts by stimulating protein synthesis. Conclusions: Considering protein and amino acids intake, an adequate daily intake of leucine (4 g/d) and whey protein (20 g/d) is recommended. Regarding vitamin D, if the blood vitamin D has low values (<30 ng/mL), it is mandatory that adequate supplementation is provided, specifically calcifediol, because in the obese patient this form is recommended to avoid seizure in the adipose tissue; 3 to 4 drops/d or 20 to 30 drops/wk of calcifediol are generally adequate to restore normal 25(OH)D plasma levels in obese patients.

Current opinion on dietary advice in order to preserve fat-free mass during a low-calorie diet / M. Rondanelli, M.A. Faliva, C. Gasparri, G. Peroni, D. Spadaccini, R. Maugeri, M. Nichetti, V. Infantino, S. Perna. - In: NUTRITION. - ISSN 0899-9007. - 72:(2020 Apr), pp. 110667.1-110667.5. [10.1016/j.nut.2019.110667]

Current opinion on dietary advice in order to preserve fat-free mass during a low-calorie diet

S. Perna
2020

Abstract

Objectives: The loss of fat-free mass (FFM) that occurs during weight loss secondary to low-calorie diet can lead to numerous and deleterious consequences. We performed a review to evaluate the state of the art on metabolic and nutritional correlates of loss of fat free mass during low calorie diet and treatment for maintaining fat free mass. Methods: This review included 44 eligible studies. There are various diet strategies to maintain FFM during a low-calorie diet, including adoption of a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD) and taking an adequate amount of specific nutrients (vitamin D, leucine, whey protein). Results: Regarding the numerous and various low-calorie diet proposals for achieving weight loss, the comparison of VLCKD with prudent low-calorie diet found that FFM was practically unaffected by VLCKD. There are numerous possible mechanisms for this, involving insulin and the insulin-like growth factor-1–growth hormone axis, which acts by stimulating protein synthesis. Conclusions: Considering protein and amino acids intake, an adequate daily intake of leucine (4 g/d) and whey protein (20 g/d) is recommended. Regarding vitamin D, if the blood vitamin D has low values (<30 ng/mL), it is mandatory that adequate supplementation is provided, specifically calcifediol, because in the obese patient this form is recommended to avoid seizure in the adipose tissue; 3 to 4 drops/d or 20 to 30 drops/wk of calcifediol are generally adequate to restore normal 25(OH)D plasma levels in obese patients.
Branched chain amino acid; Fat-free mass; Leucine; Vitamin D; VLCKD; Whey protein
Settore MED/49 - Scienze Tecniche Dietetiche Applicate
apr-2020
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/956033
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