Background: The risk of intrauterine death (IUD) at term varies from less than one to up to three cases per 1,000 ongoing pregnancies. The cause of death is often largely undefined. Protocols and criteria to prevent and define the rates and causes of stillbirth are the subjects of important scientific and clinical debates. We examined the gestational age and rate of stillbirth at term in a 10-year period at our maternity hub to evaluate the possible favorable impact of a surveillance protocol on maternal and fetal well-being and growth. Methods and findings: Our cohort included all women with singleton pregnancies resulting in early term to late term birth at our maternity hub between 2010 and 2020, with the exclusion of fetal anomalies. As per our protocol for monitoring term pregnancies, all women underwent near term to early term maternal and fetal well-being and growth surveillance. If risk factors were identified, outpatient monitoring was initiated and early- or full-term induction was indicated. Labor was induced at late term (41+0-41+4 weeks of gestation), if it did not occur spontaneously. We retrospectively collected, verified, and analyzed all cases of stillbirth at term. The incidence of stillbirth at each week of gestation, was calculated by dividing the number of stillbirths observed that week by the number of women with ongoing pregnancies in that same week. The overall rate of stillbirth per 1000 was also calculated for the entire cohort. Fetal and maternal variables were analyzed to assess the possible causes of death. Results: A total of 57,561 women were included in our study, of which 28 cases of stillbirth (overall rate, 0.48 per 1000 ongoing pregnancies; 95% CI: 0.30-0.70) were identified. The incidence of stillbirth in the ongoing pregnancies measured at 37, 38, 39, 40, and 41 weeks of gestation was 0.16, 0.30, 0.11, 0.29, and 0.0 per 1000, respectively. Only three cases occurred after 40+0 weeks of gestation. Six patients had an undetected small for gestational age fetus. The identified causes included placental conditions (n = 8), umbilical cord conditions (n = 7), and chorioamnionitis (n = 4). Furthermore, the cases of stillbirth included one undetected fetal abnormality (n = 1). The cause of fetal death remained unknown in eight cases. Conclusions: In a referral center with an active universal screening protocol for maternal and fetal prenatal surveillance at near and early term, the rate of stillbirth was 0.48 per 1000 in singleton pregnancies at term in a large, unselected population. The highest incidence of stillbirth was observed at 38 weeks of gestation. The vast majority of stillbirth cases occurred before 39 weeks of gestation and 6 of 28 cases were SGA, and the median percentile of the remaining case was the 35th.

Risk of stillbirth in singleton fetuses with advancing gestational age at term: A 10-year experience of late third trimester prenatal screenings of 50,000 deliveries in a referral center in northern Italy / F. D'Ambrosi, M. Ruggiero, N. Cesano, M. Di Maso, G.E. Cetera, B. Tassis, I.F. Carbone, E. Ferrazzi. - In: PLOS ONE. - ISSN 1932-6203. - 18:2(2023), pp. e0277262.1-e0277262.13. [10.1371/journal.pone.0277262]

Risk of stillbirth in singleton fetuses with advancing gestational age at term: A 10-year experience of late third trimester prenatal screenings of 50,000 deliveries in a referral center in northern Italy

M. Ruggiero
Co-primo
;
N. Cesano;M. Di Maso;G.E. Cetera;E. Ferrazzi
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Background: The risk of intrauterine death (IUD) at term varies from less than one to up to three cases per 1,000 ongoing pregnancies. The cause of death is often largely undefined. Protocols and criteria to prevent and define the rates and causes of stillbirth are the subjects of important scientific and clinical debates. We examined the gestational age and rate of stillbirth at term in a 10-year period at our maternity hub to evaluate the possible favorable impact of a surveillance protocol on maternal and fetal well-being and growth. Methods and findings: Our cohort included all women with singleton pregnancies resulting in early term to late term birth at our maternity hub between 2010 and 2020, with the exclusion of fetal anomalies. As per our protocol for monitoring term pregnancies, all women underwent near term to early term maternal and fetal well-being and growth surveillance. If risk factors were identified, outpatient monitoring was initiated and early- or full-term induction was indicated. Labor was induced at late term (41+0-41+4 weeks of gestation), if it did not occur spontaneously. We retrospectively collected, verified, and analyzed all cases of stillbirth at term. The incidence of stillbirth at each week of gestation, was calculated by dividing the number of stillbirths observed that week by the number of women with ongoing pregnancies in that same week. The overall rate of stillbirth per 1000 was also calculated for the entire cohort. Fetal and maternal variables were analyzed to assess the possible causes of death. Results: A total of 57,561 women were included in our study, of which 28 cases of stillbirth (overall rate, 0.48 per 1000 ongoing pregnancies; 95% CI: 0.30-0.70) were identified. The incidence of stillbirth in the ongoing pregnancies measured at 37, 38, 39, 40, and 41 weeks of gestation was 0.16, 0.30, 0.11, 0.29, and 0.0 per 1000, respectively. Only three cases occurred after 40+0 weeks of gestation. Six patients had an undetected small for gestational age fetus. The identified causes included placental conditions (n = 8), umbilical cord conditions (n = 7), and chorioamnionitis (n = 4). Furthermore, the cases of stillbirth included one undetected fetal abnormality (n = 1). The cause of fetal death remained unknown in eight cases. Conclusions: In a referral center with an active universal screening protocol for maternal and fetal prenatal surveillance at near and early term, the rate of stillbirth was 0.48 per 1000 in singleton pregnancies at term in a large, unselected population. The highest incidence of stillbirth was observed at 38 weeks of gestation. The vast majority of stillbirth cases occurred before 39 weeks of gestation and 6 of 28 cases were SGA, and the median percentile of the remaining case was the 35th.
Settore MED/01 - Statistica Medica
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/955978
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