Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). COVID-19 can manifest with a heterogenous spectrum of disease severity, from mild upper airways infection to severe interstitial pneumonia and devastating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). SARS-CoV-2 infection may induce an over activation of the immune system and the release of high concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a “cytokine storm”, a recognized pathogenetic mechanism in the genesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced lung disease. This overproduction of inflammatory cytokines has been recognized as a poor prognostic factor, since it can lead to disease progression, organ failure, ARDS and death. Moreover, the immune system shows dysregulated activity, particularly through activated macrophages and T-helper cells and in the co-occurrent exhaustion of lymphocytes. We carried out a non-systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the current knowledge on the pathologic mechanisms played by the immune system and the inflammation in the genesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced lung disease. An overview on potential treatments for this harmful condition and for contrasting the “cytokine storm” has also been presented. Finally, a look at the experimented experimental vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 has been included.

Exploring the Role of Immune System and Inflammatory Cytokines in SARS-CoV-2 Induced Lung Disease: A Narrative Review / C. Tirelli, M. De Amici, C. Albrici, S. Mira, G. Nalesso, B. Re, A.G. Corsico, M. Mondoni, S. Centanni. - In: BIOLOGY. - ISSN 2079-7737. - 12:2(2023 Feb), pp. 177.1-177.20. [10.3390/biology12020177]

Exploring the Role of Immune System and Inflammatory Cytokines in SARS-CoV-2 Induced Lung Disease: A Narrative Review

C. Tirelli
Co-primo
;
C. Albrici;S. Mira;G. Nalesso;B. Re;M. Mondoni
Penultimo
;
S. Centanni
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). COVID-19 can manifest with a heterogenous spectrum of disease severity, from mild upper airways infection to severe interstitial pneumonia and devastating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). SARS-CoV-2 infection may induce an over activation of the immune system and the release of high concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a “cytokine storm”, a recognized pathogenetic mechanism in the genesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced lung disease. This overproduction of inflammatory cytokines has been recognized as a poor prognostic factor, since it can lead to disease progression, organ failure, ARDS and death. Moreover, the immune system shows dysregulated activity, particularly through activated macrophages and T-helper cells and in the co-occurrent exhaustion of lymphocytes. We carried out a non-systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the current knowledge on the pathologic mechanisms played by the immune system and the inflammation in the genesis of SARS-CoV-2-induced lung disease. An overview on potential treatments for this harmful condition and for contrasting the “cytokine storm” has also been presented. Finally, a look at the experimented experimental vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 has been included.
SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; cytokine storm; immune system; immunotherapy; vaccine; ARDS; innate immune system; adaptive immune system
Settore MED/10 - Malattie dell'Apparato Respiratorio
feb-2023
22-gen-2023
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/955130
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