Metastatic disease represents the primary cause of breast cancer (BC) mortality, yet it is still one of the most enigmatic processes in the biology of this tumor. Metastatic progression in-cludes distinct phases: invasion, intravasation, hematogenous dissemination, extravasation and seeding at distant sites, micro-metastasis formation and metastatic outgrowth. Whole-genome sequencing analyses of primary BC and metastases revealed that BC metastatization is a non-genet-ically selected trait, rather the result of transcriptional and metabolic adaptation to the unfavorable microenvironmental conditions which cancer cells are exposed to (e.g., hypoxia, low nutrients, en-doplasmic reticulum stress and chemotherapy administration). In this regard, the latest multi-omics analyses unveiled intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity, which determines the polyclonal nature of breast tumors and constitutes a challenge for clinicians, correlating with patient poor prognosis. The present work reviews BC classification and epidemiology, focusing on the impact of metastatic disease on patient prognosis and survival, while describing general principles and current in vitro/in vivo models of the BC metastatic cascade. The authors address here both genetic and phenotypic intrinsic heterogeneity of breast tumors, reporting the latest studies that support the role of the latter in metastatic spreading. Finally, the review illustrates the mechanisms underlying adaptive stress responses during BC metastatic progression.

Beyond Genetics: Metastasis as an Adaptive Response in Breast Cancer / F. Ruscitto, N. Roda, C. Priami, E. Migliaccio, P.G. Pelicci. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 23:11(2022 Jun), pp. 6271.1-6271.22. [10.3390/ijms23116271]

Beyond Genetics: Metastasis as an Adaptive Response in Breast Cancer

P.G. Pelicci
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Metastatic disease represents the primary cause of breast cancer (BC) mortality, yet it is still one of the most enigmatic processes in the biology of this tumor. Metastatic progression in-cludes distinct phases: invasion, intravasation, hematogenous dissemination, extravasation and seeding at distant sites, micro-metastasis formation and metastatic outgrowth. Whole-genome sequencing analyses of primary BC and metastases revealed that BC metastatization is a non-genet-ically selected trait, rather the result of transcriptional and metabolic adaptation to the unfavorable microenvironmental conditions which cancer cells are exposed to (e.g., hypoxia, low nutrients, en-doplasmic reticulum stress and chemotherapy administration). In this regard, the latest multi-omics analyses unveiled intra-tumor phenotypic heterogeneity, which determines the polyclonal nature of breast tumors and constitutes a challenge for clinicians, correlating with patient poor prognosis. The present work reviews BC classification and epidemiology, focusing on the impact of metastatic disease on patient prognosis and survival, while describing general principles and current in vitro/in vivo models of the BC metastatic cascade. The authors address here both genetic and phenotypic intrinsic heterogeneity of breast tumors, reporting the latest studies that support the role of the latter in metastatic spreading. Finally, the review illustrates the mechanisms underlying adaptive stress responses during BC metastatic progression.
adaptive responses; breast cancer; intra-tumor heterogeneity; metastatic cascade; mutational profile
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
giu-2022
3-giu-2022
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/952634
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