α,α-Difluoromethyl ketones (DFMKs) have emerged as currently investigated agents benefiting from the merging of chemico-physical features conferred by the constitutive elements (-CHF2 and carbonyl moietites). With a view to biological applications, the additional incorporation of heterocycles is a desirable property enabling the tuning of critical factors encompassing the pharmaco-dynamic and kinetic profiles. The underexplored assembling of α,α-difluoromethyl-heteroaromatic ketones is herein implemented via a conceptually intuitive Weinreb amide acylative transfer of a putative difluoromethyl-carbanion. To make the strategy productive, we adopted the commercially available TMSCHF2 pronucleophile - characterized by robust chemical stability and manipulability (bp 65 °C) - which upon Lewis-base mediated activation delivers the competent CHF2-nucleophile. The synthetic protocol was carried out on pyrazole- and isoxazole-based scaffolds, and a panel of heteroaryl-DFMKs was consequently developed as potential COX-inhibitors. In this sense, the bioisosterism deducted through docking studies between the widely expressed carboxylic group (in several clinically used COX inhibitors) and the -COCHF2 motif introduced herein supports this rationale. To confirm the docking results, all compounds were tested against both COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme isoforms showing activity in the micromolar range and a good selectivity index (SI). They were also evaluated for their biocompatibility using NIH/3T3 cells to which they did not show any significant toxicity.

Synthesis, computational investigation and biological evaluation of α,α-difluoromethyl ketones embodying pyrazole and isoxazole nuclei as COX inhibitors / A. Citarella, L. Ielo, C. Stagno, M. Cristani, C. Muscara, V. Pace, N. Micale. - In: ORGANIC & BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 1477-0520. - 20:42(2022), pp. 8293-8304. [10.1039/d2ob01382g]

Synthesis, computational investigation and biological evaluation of α,α-difluoromethyl ketones embodying pyrazole and isoxazole nuclei as COX inhibitors

A. Citarella
Primo
;
2022

Abstract

α,α-Difluoromethyl ketones (DFMKs) have emerged as currently investigated agents benefiting from the merging of chemico-physical features conferred by the constitutive elements (-CHF2 and carbonyl moietites). With a view to biological applications, the additional incorporation of heterocycles is a desirable property enabling the tuning of critical factors encompassing the pharmaco-dynamic and kinetic profiles. The underexplored assembling of α,α-difluoromethyl-heteroaromatic ketones is herein implemented via a conceptually intuitive Weinreb amide acylative transfer of a putative difluoromethyl-carbanion. To make the strategy productive, we adopted the commercially available TMSCHF2 pronucleophile - characterized by robust chemical stability and manipulability (bp 65 °C) - which upon Lewis-base mediated activation delivers the competent CHF2-nucleophile. The synthetic protocol was carried out on pyrazole- and isoxazole-based scaffolds, and a panel of heteroaryl-DFMKs was consequently developed as potential COX-inhibitors. In this sense, the bioisosterism deducted through docking studies between the widely expressed carboxylic group (in several clinically used COX inhibitors) and the -COCHF2 motif introduced herein supports this rationale. To confirm the docking results, all compounds were tested against both COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme isoforms showing activity in the micromolar range and a good selectivity index (SI). They were also evaluated for their biocompatibility using NIH/3T3 cells to which they did not show any significant toxicity.
Settore CHIM/06 - Chimica Organica
Settore CHIM/08 - Chimica Farmaceutica
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/951692
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