The root system is formed by the primary root (PR), which forms lateral roots (LRs) and, in some cases, adventitious roots (ARs), which in turn may produce their own LRs. The formation of ARs is also essential for vegetative propagation in planta and in vitro and for breeding programs. Root formation and branching is coordinated by a complex developmental network, which maximizes the plant’s ability to cope with abiotic stress. Rooting is also a response caused in a cutting by wounding and disconnection from the donor plant. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid molecules perceived at the cell surface. They act as plant-growth-regulators (PGRs) and modulate plant development to provide stress tolerance. BRs and auxins control the formation of LRs and ARs. The auxin/BR interaction involves other PGRs and compounds, such as nitric oxide (NO), strigolactones (SLs), and sphingolipids (SPLs). The roles of these interactions in root formation and plasticity are still to be discovered. SLs are carotenoid derived PGRs. SLs enhance/reduce LR/AR formation depending on species and culture conditions. These PGRs possibly crosstalk with BRs. SPLs form domains with sterols within cellular membranes. Both SLs and SPLs participate in plant development and stress responses. SPLs are determinant for auxin cell-trafficking, which is essential for the formation of LRs/ARs in planta and in in vitro systems. Although little is known about the transport, trafficking, and signaling of SPLs, they seem to interact with BRs and SLs in regulating root-system growth. Here, we review the literature on BRs as modulators of LR and AR formation, as well as their crosstalk with SLs and SPLs through NO signaling. Knowledge on the control of rooting by these non-classical PGRs can help in improving crop productivity and enhancing AR-response from cuttings.

New Paradigms in Brassinosteroids, Strigolactones, Sphingolipids, and Nitric Oxide Interaction in the Control of Lateral and Adventitious Root Formation / M. Maddalena Altamura, D. Piacentini, F. Della Rovere, L. Fattorini, G. Falasca, C. Betti. - In: PLANTS. - ISSN 2223-7747. - 12:2(2023 Jan 16), pp. 413.1-413.18. [10.3390/plants12020413]

New Paradigms in Brassinosteroids, Strigolactones, Sphingolipids, and Nitric Oxide Interaction in the Control of Lateral and Adventitious Root Formation

C. Betti
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

The root system is formed by the primary root (PR), which forms lateral roots (LRs) and, in some cases, adventitious roots (ARs), which in turn may produce their own LRs. The formation of ARs is also essential for vegetative propagation in planta and in vitro and for breeding programs. Root formation and branching is coordinated by a complex developmental network, which maximizes the plant’s ability to cope with abiotic stress. Rooting is also a response caused in a cutting by wounding and disconnection from the donor plant. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid molecules perceived at the cell surface. They act as plant-growth-regulators (PGRs) and modulate plant development to provide stress tolerance. BRs and auxins control the formation of LRs and ARs. The auxin/BR interaction involves other PGRs and compounds, such as nitric oxide (NO), strigolactones (SLs), and sphingolipids (SPLs). The roles of these interactions in root formation and plasticity are still to be discovered. SLs are carotenoid derived PGRs. SLs enhance/reduce LR/AR formation depending on species and culture conditions. These PGRs possibly crosstalk with BRs. SPLs form domains with sterols within cellular membranes. Both SLs and SPLs participate in plant development and stress responses. SPLs are determinant for auxin cell-trafficking, which is essential for the formation of LRs/ARs in planta and in in vitro systems. Although little is known about the transport, trafficking, and signaling of SPLs, they seem to interact with BRs and SLs in regulating root-system growth. Here, we review the literature on BRs as modulators of LR and AR formation, as well as their crosstalk with SLs and SPLs through NO signaling. Knowledge on the control of rooting by these non-classical PGRs can help in improving crop productivity and enhancing AR-response from cuttings.
auxin; MAX2; nitric oxide signaling; post-embryonic root development; PUCHI; root formation in cuttings; stress response; synthetic strigolactones; 24-epibrassinolide; very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs)
Settore BIO/01 - Botanica Generale
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/951385
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