Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated a positive association between exposure to air pollutants and the incidence of cardiovascular disease, with the strongest evidence for particles with a diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Therefore, air pollution has been included among the modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes as cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure, and arrhythmias. Interestingly, the adverse effects of air pollution are more pronounced at higher levels of exposure but were also shown in countries with low levels of air pollution, indicating no apparent safe threshold. It is generally believed that exposure to air pollution in the long-term can accelerate atherosclerosis progression by promoting dyslipidemia, hypertension, and other metabolic disorders due to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Regarding high density lipoproteins (HDL), the impact of air pollution on plasma HDL-cholesterol levels is still debated, but there is accumulating evidence that HDL function can be impaired. In particular, the exposure to air pollution has been variably associated with a reduction in their cholesterol efflux capacity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, and ability to promote the release of nitric oxide. Further studies are needed to fully address the impact of various air pollutants on HDL functions and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for HDL dysfunction.

Air Pollution: Another Threat to HDL Function / A. Ossoli, F. Cetti, M. Gomaraschi. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1422-0067. - 24:1(2022 Dec 24), pp. 317.1-317.14. [10.3390/ijms24010317]

Air Pollution: Another Threat to HDL Function

A. Ossoli
Primo
;
F. Cetti;M. Gomaraschi
2022

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated a positive association between exposure to air pollutants and the incidence of cardiovascular disease, with the strongest evidence for particles with a diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Therefore, air pollution has been included among the modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes as cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary syndrome, stroke, heart failure, and arrhythmias. Interestingly, the adverse effects of air pollution are more pronounced at higher levels of exposure but were also shown in countries with low levels of air pollution, indicating no apparent safe threshold. It is generally believed that exposure to air pollution in the long-term can accelerate atherosclerosis progression by promoting dyslipidemia, hypertension, and other metabolic disorders due to systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Regarding high density lipoproteins (HDL), the impact of air pollution on plasma HDL-cholesterol levels is still debated, but there is accumulating evidence that HDL function can be impaired. In particular, the exposure to air pollution has been variably associated with a reduction in their cholesterol efflux capacity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, and ability to promote the release of nitric oxide. Further studies are needed to fully address the impact of various air pollutants on HDL functions and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for HDL dysfunction.
HDL dysfunction; air pollution; high density lipoproteins; inflammation; oxidative stress
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/950853
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