Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) found mostly in fish oil. They have been commonly used as dietary integrators in human and animal nutrition, modulating the immune system, mostly by exerting anti-inflammatory activities as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro studies. The precise mechanisms of action at the background of EPA and DHA immunomodulatory activity are still not fully elucidated. Moreover, no information on their effects on porcine monocytes immune response is available yet. To cover this gap, the study aimed to evaluate DHA and EPA's in vitro impact on porcine monocytes (CD14 +) defensive functions. Briefly, monocytes were isolated from the blood of twenty-six healthy pigs, using a magnetic-activated cell sorting technique (MACS). Monocytes were first treated with increasing concentrations of DHA and EPA (25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) and apoptosis and viability were measured to assess potential cytotoxic effects. Once determined EPA and DHA subtoxic working concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µM), their effects on chemotaxis, phagocytosis and total, intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evaluated. DHA and EPA only decreased porcine monocytes viability at the highest concentration (200 µM), but their apoptosis was unaffected. DHA (100 µM) decreased the cells' chemotaxis, while EPA (25 µM) increased their intracellular ROS production after 60 min under non-inflammatory or resting conditions and at 90 min under pro-inflammatory conditions (PMA challenge). EPA (50 µM) decreased monocytes' intracellular ROS levels only under resting conditions at 30 min. No effects were observed on porcine monocytes phagocytic capacity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that DHA and EPA can exert differential in vitro immunomodulatory effects in pigs, by dampening monocytes chemotaxis and potentiating their oxidative burst, respectively. Thus, our results suggest these n-3 PUFA might exert both anti-inflammatory and/or immune-enhancing effects in pigs.

Immunomodulatory effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on porcine monocytes (CD14 +) immune response in vitro / G.D.L.A. Ávila Morales, S. Di Mauro, J. Filipe, A. Agazzi, M. Comi, C. Lecchi, F. Ceciliani. - In: VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY. - ISSN 0165-2427. - 254:(2022 Dec), pp. 110523.1-110523.9. [10.1016/j.vetimm.2022.110523]

Immunomodulatory effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on porcine monocytes (CD14 +) immune response in vitro

S. Di Mauro;J. Filipe;A. Agazzi;M. Comi;C. Lecchi
Penultimo
;
F. Ceciliani
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) found mostly in fish oil. They have been commonly used as dietary integrators in human and animal nutrition, modulating the immune system, mostly by exerting anti-inflammatory activities as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro studies. The precise mechanisms of action at the background of EPA and DHA immunomodulatory activity are still not fully elucidated. Moreover, no information on their effects on porcine monocytes immune response is available yet. To cover this gap, the study aimed to evaluate DHA and EPA's in vitro impact on porcine monocytes (CD14 +) defensive functions. Briefly, monocytes were isolated from the blood of twenty-six healthy pigs, using a magnetic-activated cell sorting technique (MACS). Monocytes were first treated with increasing concentrations of DHA and EPA (25, 50, 100 and 200 µM) and apoptosis and viability were measured to assess potential cytotoxic effects. Once determined EPA and DHA subtoxic working concentrations (25, 50 and 100 µM), their effects on chemotaxis, phagocytosis and total, intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evaluated. DHA and EPA only decreased porcine monocytes viability at the highest concentration (200 µM), but their apoptosis was unaffected. DHA (100 µM) decreased the cells' chemotaxis, while EPA (25 µM) increased their intracellular ROS production after 60 min under non-inflammatory or resting conditions and at 90 min under pro-inflammatory conditions (PMA challenge). EPA (50 µM) decreased monocytes' intracellular ROS levels only under resting conditions at 30 min. No effects were observed on porcine monocytes phagocytic capacity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that DHA and EPA can exert differential in vitro immunomodulatory effects in pigs, by dampening monocytes chemotaxis and potentiating their oxidative burst, respectively. Thus, our results suggest these n-3 PUFA might exert both anti-inflammatory and/or immune-enhancing effects in pigs.
Anti-inflammatory; Chemotaxis; Monocyte; N-3 PUFA; Pig; ROS production
Settore VET/03 - Patologia Generale e Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria
H20MCITNIF18FCECI_01 - Joint Doctorate in Molecular Animal Nutrition (MANNA) - CECILIANI, FABRIZIO - H20MCITNIF - Horizon 2020_Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions-Innovative Training Network (ITN)/Individual Fellowships (IF) - 2018
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/950757
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