Objectives: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the leading nongenetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (HL). However, there are no universally accepted approaches to diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main characteristics of cCMV-infected children, focusing on their management and long-term hearing outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study included all children with cCMV infection who were referred to a third-level referral audiologic center for a 6-year hearing follow-up. The main information collected from the medical records included gestational age, birth weight, trimester of maternal seroconversion, hearing status at birth and after 6 years, hearing fluctuations, treatment with oral valganciclovir (within the first month of life and for 6 months), use of hearing devices, presence of speech-language delay, motor delay, cognitive delay and balance disorders, awareness of cCMV among parents, and parents' engagement in behaviors that could increase the risk of CMV infection during pregnancy. Results: A total of 141 children with cCMV infection (72 males and 69 females; mean gestational age: 37+3 weeks; mean birth weight: 2893 g) were assessed. Overall, 48 children (34.0%) had a diagnosis of speech-language delay, 32 (22.7%) of sensorineural HL (59.4% bilaterally; 50% of profound degree), 18 (12.8%) of motor delay, 16 (11.3%) of balance disorders, and 6 (4.3%) of cognitive delay. Among children with HL, 8 (25.0%) were fitted with hearing aids (5 unilaterally and 3 bilaterally), and 5 (15.6%) had undergone cochlear implantation (1 unilaterally and 4 bilaterally), while a bimodal hearing solution was adopted for 2 (6.3%) patients. Compared to children with asymptomatic cCMV infection, symptomatic children had a higher prevalence of neurological and auditory sequelae (P < 0.01) and bilateral (P = 0.003) and severe-to-profound HL (P = 0.004). Overall, 23 children (16.3%) received oral valganciclovir, and only one of them experienced hearing deterioration. Only 14.9% of mothers and 5% of fathers were aware that cCMV could cause progressive or late-onset HL, and 87.9% of parents (248/282) had engaged in behaviors that increased the risk of CMV infection during pregnancy. Conclusion: This study confirmed the importance of performing a long audiological follow-up in children diagnosed with cCMV infection due to the possible late-onset, progressive and fluctuating nature of HL. Moreover, the study highlighted many current controversies in preventive (poor prenatal education), diagnostic (routine maternal serological screening) and therapeutic (valganciclovir administered to asymptomatic children) approaches to cCMV infection. More efforts should be made to improve prevention strategies and raise awareness of cCMV infection risks among the population.

Hearing outcomes in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection: From management controversies to lack of parents' knowledge / M. Alde', E. Caputo, F. DI BERARDINO, U. Ambrosetti, S.A.M. Barozzi, G.M.C. Piatti, D. Zanetti, L. Pignataro, G. Cantarella. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY. - ISSN 0165-5876. - 164:(2023), pp. 111420.1-111420.7. [10.1016/j.ijporl.2022.111420]

Hearing outcomes in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection: From management controversies to lack of parents' knowledge

M. Alde'
Primo
;
F. DI BERARDINO;U. Ambrosetti;S.A.M. Barozzi;G.M.C. Piatti;D. Zanetti;L. Pignataro
Penultimo
;
G. Cantarella
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Objectives: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the leading nongenetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (HL). However, there are no universally accepted approaches to diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main characteristics of cCMV-infected children, focusing on their management and long-term hearing outcomes. Methods: This retrospective study included all children with cCMV infection who were referred to a third-level referral audiologic center for a 6-year hearing follow-up. The main information collected from the medical records included gestational age, birth weight, trimester of maternal seroconversion, hearing status at birth and after 6 years, hearing fluctuations, treatment with oral valganciclovir (within the first month of life and for 6 months), use of hearing devices, presence of speech-language delay, motor delay, cognitive delay and balance disorders, awareness of cCMV among parents, and parents' engagement in behaviors that could increase the risk of CMV infection during pregnancy. Results: A total of 141 children with cCMV infection (72 males and 69 females; mean gestational age: 37+3 weeks; mean birth weight: 2893 g) were assessed. Overall, 48 children (34.0%) had a diagnosis of speech-language delay, 32 (22.7%) of sensorineural HL (59.4% bilaterally; 50% of profound degree), 18 (12.8%) of motor delay, 16 (11.3%) of balance disorders, and 6 (4.3%) of cognitive delay. Among children with HL, 8 (25.0%) were fitted with hearing aids (5 unilaterally and 3 bilaterally), and 5 (15.6%) had undergone cochlear implantation (1 unilaterally and 4 bilaterally), while a bimodal hearing solution was adopted for 2 (6.3%) patients. Compared to children with asymptomatic cCMV infection, symptomatic children had a higher prevalence of neurological and auditory sequelae (P < 0.01) and bilateral (P = 0.003) and severe-to-profound HL (P = 0.004). Overall, 23 children (16.3%) received oral valganciclovir, and only one of them experienced hearing deterioration. Only 14.9% of mothers and 5% of fathers were aware that cCMV could cause progressive or late-onset HL, and 87.9% of parents (248/282) had engaged in behaviors that increased the risk of CMV infection during pregnancy. Conclusion: This study confirmed the importance of performing a long audiological follow-up in children diagnosed with cCMV infection due to the possible late-onset, progressive and fluctuating nature of HL. Moreover, the study highlighted many current controversies in preventive (poor prenatal education), diagnostic (routine maternal serological screening) and therapeutic (valganciclovir administered to asymptomatic children) approaches to cCMV infection. More efforts should be made to improve prevention strategies and raise awareness of cCMV infection risks among the population.
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection; Hearing loss; Valganciclovir; Pregnancy; Universal newborn screening
Settore MED/32 - Audiologia
Settore MED/31 - Otorinolaringoiatria
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica
20-dic-2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/949652
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