Since chlorohydrazones are planar molecules, it is in principle possible to distinguish between their E and Z stereoisomers. Chlorohydrazones are known to preferentially assume the Z configuration around the C=N double bond, and their (E, Z) isomerization is almost suppressed at room temperature. The lack, or rather the difficulty, of such an isomerization has been conveniently addressed by the in-depth theoretical study of seven C-methoxycarbonyl-N-aryl chlorohydrazones (aryl = phenyl, 4-chlorophenyl, 4-bromophenyl, 4-iodophenyl, 2-chlorophenyl, 2-bromophenyl, and 2-iodophenyl). DFT ωB97M-D4/cc-pVTZ calculations of these C-methoxycarbonyl-N-aryl chlorohydrazones, supported by the XRD determination of the molecular structure, provided a complete picture of the isomerization processes in the studied compounds. The analysis of the en- ergetics, molecular geometry, and electronic structure (the latter in the framework of the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules) showed that the Z isomers are thermodynamically favored because, within the low-energy planar isomers with extensive π conjugation, the electrostatic interactions between the dipoles of the C–O, C–Cl, and N–H bonds overcome the stabilization induced by the N–H ··· O bond present in the E isomers. We confirmed that the (E, Z) isomerization occurs by the umklapp mechanism, in which the –NHAr moiety rotates in the molecular plane towards a linear C=N–N configuration and then proceeds to the other isomer. The (E, Z) isomerization is very slow at room temperature because the umklapp interconversion has high barriers (≈110 kJ/mol) despite the extended π electron delocalization present in the transition state.

The (E, Z) Isomerization of C-methoxycarbonyl-N-aryl Chlorohydrazones / G. Molteni, F. Cargnoni, R. Soave, A. Ponti. - In: CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 2624-8549. - 4:(2022 Dec), pp. 1624-1653. [10.3390/chemistry4040106]

The (E, Z) Isomerization of C-methoxycarbonyl-N-aryl Chlorohydrazones

G. Molteni
Primo
Methodology
;
F. Cargnoni
Secondo
Investigation
;
R. Soave
Penultimo
Investigation
;
2022

Abstract

Since chlorohydrazones are planar molecules, it is in principle possible to distinguish between their E and Z stereoisomers. Chlorohydrazones are known to preferentially assume the Z configuration around the C=N double bond, and their (E, Z) isomerization is almost suppressed at room temperature. The lack, or rather the difficulty, of such an isomerization has been conveniently addressed by the in-depth theoretical study of seven C-methoxycarbonyl-N-aryl chlorohydrazones (aryl = phenyl, 4-chlorophenyl, 4-bromophenyl, 4-iodophenyl, 2-chlorophenyl, 2-bromophenyl, and 2-iodophenyl). DFT ωB97M-D4/cc-pVTZ calculations of these C-methoxycarbonyl-N-aryl chlorohydrazones, supported by the XRD determination of the molecular structure, provided a complete picture of the isomerization processes in the studied compounds. The analysis of the en- ergetics, molecular geometry, and electronic structure (the latter in the framework of the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules) showed that the Z isomers are thermodynamically favored because, within the low-energy planar isomers with extensive π conjugation, the electrostatic interactions between the dipoles of the C–O, C–Cl, and N–H bonds overcome the stabilization induced by the N–H ··· O bond present in the E isomers. We confirmed that the (E, Z) isomerization occurs by the umklapp mechanism, in which the –NHAr moiety rotates in the molecular plane towards a linear C=N–N configuration and then proceeds to the other isomer. The (E, Z) isomerization is very slow at room temperature because the umklapp interconversion has high barriers (≈110 kJ/mol) despite the extended π electron delocalization present in the transition state.
chlorohydrazones; (EZ) isomerization; DFT calculation; ωB97M; QTAIM; X-ray diffraction
Settore CHIM/06 - Chimica Organica
https://www.mdpi.com/2624-8549/4/4/106
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/947351
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