Simple Summary Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare but deadly disease with traditionally limited treatment options. The disease can be categorized by anatomic location within the biliary tree, with different associated risk factors and molecular profiles. Recent years have seen a burgeoning of targeted therapies that have enhanced survival in subsets of patients with certain mutations. We herein discuss these more recent advances as well as providing an overview of more well-known treatment modalities, with the goal of providing an accessible source for practicing clinicians. A minority of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) can be cured by surgical intervention (i.e., liver resection (LR) and liver transplantation (LT)). When modern criteria for LT are met, this intervention along with neoadjuvant treatments may achieve unprecedented survival in selected patients. Liver resection is associated with a median overall survival (OS) of 40 months, this number drastically decreases for unresectable advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is treated with systemic therapy. The first-line chemotherapy regimen of gemcitabine and cisplatin is associated with a median overall survival of only 11.7 months. Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approval of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 inhibitor ivosidenib in August 2021, there has been increasing interest in targeted therapy for CCA patients harboring mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK), B-raf kinase (BRAF), and HER2. At the same time, immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors isalso being used in relapsed CCA. This review looks into the most recently completed and ongoing studies of targeted therapy as monotherapy or in combination with chemo- and/or immunotherapy. Whether it is resection, liver transplant, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or any combination of these treatment modalities, great strides are being made to improve outcomes for this challenging disease.

Newest Therapies for Cholangiocarcinoma: An Updated Overview of Approved Treatments with Transplant Oncology Vision / Y. Zhang, A. Esmail, V. Mazzaferro, M. Abdelrahim. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:20(2022), pp. 5074.1-5074.21. [10.3390/cancers14205074]

Newest Therapies for Cholangiocarcinoma: An Updated Overview of Approved Treatments with Transplant Oncology Vision

V. Mazzaferro
Penultimo
;
2022

Abstract

Simple Summary Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare but deadly disease with traditionally limited treatment options. The disease can be categorized by anatomic location within the biliary tree, with different associated risk factors and molecular profiles. Recent years have seen a burgeoning of targeted therapies that have enhanced survival in subsets of patients with certain mutations. We herein discuss these more recent advances as well as providing an overview of more well-known treatment modalities, with the goal of providing an accessible source for practicing clinicians. A minority of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) can be cured by surgical intervention (i.e., liver resection (LR) and liver transplantation (LT)). When modern criteria for LT are met, this intervention along with neoadjuvant treatments may achieve unprecedented survival in selected patients. Liver resection is associated with a median overall survival (OS) of 40 months, this number drastically decreases for unresectable advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), which is treated with systemic therapy. The first-line chemotherapy regimen of gemcitabine and cisplatin is associated with a median overall survival of only 11.7 months. Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s approval of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 inhibitor ivosidenib in August 2021, there has been increasing interest in targeted therapy for CCA patients harboring mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK), B-raf kinase (BRAF), and HER2. At the same time, immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors isalso being used in relapsed CCA. This review looks into the most recently completed and ongoing studies of targeted therapy as monotherapy or in combination with chemo- and/or immunotherapy. Whether it is resection, liver transplant, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or any combination of these treatment modalities, great strides are being made to improve outcomes for this challenging disease.
cholangiocarcinoma; immunotherapy; targeted therapy; transplant oncology
Settore MED/06 - Oncologia Medica
Settore MED/18 - Chirurgia Generale
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/947064
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