Objective: To report a preliminary experience of outpatient management of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an innovative approach of healthcare delivery. Patients and Methods: Patients evaluated at the Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Outpatient clinics (MMCOs) of San Raffaele University Hospital and Luigi Sacco University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from 1 October 2020 to 31 October 2021 were included. Patients were referred by general practitioners (GPs), Emergency Department (ED) physicians or hospital specialists (HS) in case of moderate COVID-19. A classification and regression tree (CART) model predicting ED referral by MMCO physicians was developed to aid GPs identify those deserving immediate ED admission. Cost-effectiveness analysis was also performed. Results: A total of 660 patients were included. The majority (70%) was referred by GPs, 21% by the ED and 9% by HS. Patients referred by GPs had more severe disease as assessed by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and interstitial involvement at lung ultrasound. Among them, 18% were addressed to the ED following MMCO assessment. CART analysis identified three independent predictors, namely home-measured SpO2, age and body mass index (BMI), that robustly divide patients into risk groups of COVID-19 severity. Home-measured SpO2 < 95% and BMI ≥ 33 Kg/m2 defined the high-risk group. The model yielded an accuracy (95% CI) of 83 (77–88)%. Outpatient management of COVID-19 patients allowed the national healthcare system to spare 1,490,422.05 € when compared with inpatient care. Conclusion: Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 outpatient clinics were effective and sustainable in managing COVID-19 patients and allowed to alleviate pressure on EDs and hospital wards, favoring effort redirection toward non-COVID-19 patients.

A Pilot Study of the Efficacy and Economical Sustainability of Acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patient Management in an Outpatient Setting / R. De Lorenzo, M. Montagna, E. Bossi, G. Vitali, A. Taino, M. Cilla, G. Pata, L. Lazorova, R. Pesenti, C. Pomaranzi, C. Bussolari, S. Martinenghi, N. Bordonaro, D. Di Napoli, G. Rizzardini, C. Cogliati, N. Morici, P. Rovere-Querini. - In: FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE. - ISSN 2296-858X. - 9:(2022 Apr 27), pp. 892962.1-892962.10. [10.3389/fmed.2022.892962]

A Pilot Study of the Efficacy and Economical Sustainability of Acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patient Management in an Outpatient Setting

C. Cogliati;
2022

Abstract

Objective: To report a preliminary experience of outpatient management of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through an innovative approach of healthcare delivery. Patients and Methods: Patients evaluated at the Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19 Outpatient clinics (MMCOs) of San Raffaele University Hospital and Luigi Sacco University Hospital in Milan, Italy, from 1 October 2020 to 31 October 2021 were included. Patients were referred by general practitioners (GPs), Emergency Department (ED) physicians or hospital specialists (HS) in case of moderate COVID-19. A classification and regression tree (CART) model predicting ED referral by MMCO physicians was developed to aid GPs identify those deserving immediate ED admission. Cost-effectiveness analysis was also performed. Results: A total of 660 patients were included. The majority (70%) was referred by GPs, 21% by the ED and 9% by HS. Patients referred by GPs had more severe disease as assessed by peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and interstitial involvement at lung ultrasound. Among them, 18% were addressed to the ED following MMCO assessment. CART analysis identified three independent predictors, namely home-measured SpO2, age and body mass index (BMI), that robustly divide patients into risk groups of COVID-19 severity. Home-measured SpO2 < 95% and BMI ≥ 33 Kg/m2 defined the high-risk group. The model yielded an accuracy (95% CI) of 83 (77–88)%. Outpatient management of COVID-19 patients allowed the national healthcare system to spare 1,490,422.05 € when compared with inpatient care. Conclusion: Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 outpatient clinics were effective and sustainable in managing COVID-19 patients and allowed to alleviate pressure on EDs and hospital wards, favoring effort redirection toward non-COVID-19 patients.
COVID-19; care pathway; cost-effectiveness; healthcare; outpatient clinic; prediction model
Settore MED/09 - Medicina Interna
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
A Pilot Study of the Efficacy and Economical Sustainability of Acute Coronavirus.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 1.21 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.21 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/946969
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact