Background DNA ligases are crucial for DNA repair and cell replication since they catalyze the final steps in which DNA breaks are joined. DNA Ligase III (LIG3) exerts a pivotal role in Alternative-Non-Homologous End Joining Repair (Alt-NHEJ), an error-prone DNA repair pathway often up-regulated in genomically unstable cancer, such as Multiple Myeloma (MM). Based on the three-dimensional (3D) LIG3 structure, we performed a computational screening to identify LIG3-targeting natural compounds as potential candidates to counteract Alt-NHEJ activity in MM. Methods Virtual screening was conducted by interrogating the Phenol Explorer database. Validation of binding to LIG3 recombinant protein was performed by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Cell viability was analyzed by Cell Titer-Glo assay; apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis following Annexin V-7AAD staining. Alt-NHEJ repair modulation was evaluated using plasmid re-joining assay and Cytoscan HD. DNA Damage Response protein levels were analyzed by Western blot of whole and fractionated protein extracts and immunofluorescence analysis. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was determined by qPCR. In vivo activity was evaluated in NOD-SCID mice subcutaneously engrafted with MM cells. Results Here, we provide evidence that a natural flavonoid Rhamnetin (RHM), selected by a computational approach, counteracts LIG3 activity and killed Alt-NHEJ-dependent MM cells. Indeed, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed binding of RHM to LIG3 protein and functional experiments revealed that RHM interferes with LIG3-driven nuclear and mitochondrial DNA repair, leading to significant anti-MM activity in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Taken together, our findings provide proof of concept that RHM targets LIG3 addiction in MM and may represent therefore a novel promising anti-tumor natural agent to be investigated in an early clinical setting.

Exploiting DNA Ligase III addiction of multiple myeloma by flavonoid Rhamnetin / D. Caracciolo, G. Juli, C. Riillo, A. Coricello, F. Vasile, S. Pollastri, R. Rocca, F. Scionti, N. Polerà, K. Grillone, M. Arbitrio, N. Staropoli, B. Caparello, D. Britti, G. Loprete, G. Costa, M.T. Di Martino, S. Alcaro, P. Tagliaferri, P. Tassone. - In: JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1479-5876. - 20:1(2022), pp. 482.1-482.16. [10.1186/s12967-022-03705-z]

Exploiting DNA Ligase III addiction of multiple myeloma by flavonoid Rhamnetin

F. Vasile;S. Pollastri;
2022

Abstract

Background DNA ligases are crucial for DNA repair and cell replication since they catalyze the final steps in which DNA breaks are joined. DNA Ligase III (LIG3) exerts a pivotal role in Alternative-Non-Homologous End Joining Repair (Alt-NHEJ), an error-prone DNA repair pathway often up-regulated in genomically unstable cancer, such as Multiple Myeloma (MM). Based on the three-dimensional (3D) LIG3 structure, we performed a computational screening to identify LIG3-targeting natural compounds as potential candidates to counteract Alt-NHEJ activity in MM. Methods Virtual screening was conducted by interrogating the Phenol Explorer database. Validation of binding to LIG3 recombinant protein was performed by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Cell viability was analyzed by Cell Titer-Glo assay; apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis following Annexin V-7AAD staining. Alt-NHEJ repair modulation was evaluated using plasmid re-joining assay and Cytoscan HD. DNA Damage Response protein levels were analyzed by Western blot of whole and fractionated protein extracts and immunofluorescence analysis. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was determined by qPCR. In vivo activity was evaluated in NOD-SCID mice subcutaneously engrafted with MM cells. Results Here, we provide evidence that a natural flavonoid Rhamnetin (RHM), selected by a computational approach, counteracts LIG3 activity and killed Alt-NHEJ-dependent MM cells. Indeed, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed binding of RHM to LIG3 protein and functional experiments revealed that RHM interferes with LIG3-driven nuclear and mitochondrial DNA repair, leading to significant anti-MM activity in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Taken together, our findings provide proof of concept that RHM targets LIG3 addiction in MM and may represent therefore a novel promising anti-tumor natural agent to be investigated in an early clinical setting.
DNA Ligase III; DNA repair; Flavonoid; Genomic Instability; LIG3; Multiple myeloma; Natural compounds; Polyphenols; Rhamnetin; Animals; Mice; Annexin A5; DNA Ligases; DNA, Mitochondrial; Mice, Inbred NOD; Mice, SCID; Phenols; Recombinant Proteins; DNA Ligase ATP; DNA Repair; Flavonoids; Multiple Myeloma
Settore CHIM/06 - Chimica Organica
Settore MED/06 - Oncologia Medica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/945868
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