Objective To assess the impact of treatment with steroids on the incidence and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Design Propensity-matched retrospective cohort study from February 24 to December 31, 2020, in 4 dedicated COVID-19 Intensive Care Units (ICU) in Lombardy (Italy). Patients Adult consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were subdivided into two groups: (1) treated with low-dose corticosteroids (dexamethasone 6 mg/day intravenous for 10 days) (DEXA+); (2) not treated with corticosteroids (DEXA-). A propensity score matching procedure (1:1 ratio) identified patients' cohorts based on: age, weight, PEEP Level, PaO2/FiO(2) ratio, non-respiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), C reactive protein plasma concentration at admission, sex and admission hospital (exact matching). Intervention Dexamethasone 6 mg/day intravenous for 10 days from hospital admission. Measurements and main results Seven hundred and thirty-nine patients were included, and the propensity-score matching identified two groups of 158 subjects each. Eighty-nine (56%) DEXA+ versus 55 (34%) DEXA- patients developed a VAP (RR 1.61 (1.26-2.098), p = 0.0001), after similar time from hospitalization, ICU admission and intubation. DEXA+ patients had higher crude VAP incidence rate (49.58 (49.26-49.91) vs. 31.65 (31.38-31.91)VAP*1000/pd), (IRR 1.57 (1.55-1.58), p < 0.0001) and risk for VAP (HR 1.81 (1.31-2.50), p = 0.0003), with longer ICU LOS and invasive mechanical ventilation but similar mortality (RR 1.17 (0.85-1.63), p = 0.3332). VAPs were similarly due to G+ bacteria (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) and G- bacteria (mostly Enterobacterales). Forty-one (28%) VAPs were due to multi-drug resistant bacteria. VAP was associated with almost doubled ICU and hospital LOS and invasive mechanical ventilation, and increased mortality (RR 1.64 [1.02-2.65], p = 0.040) with no differences among patients' groups. Conclusions Critically ill COVID-19 patients are at high risk for VAP, frequently caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, and the risk is increased by corticosteroid treatment. Trial registration: NCT04388670, retrospectively registered May 14, 2020.

Impact of dexamethasone on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients: a propensity-matched cohort studyIn: CRITICAL CARE. - ISSN 1466-609X. - 26:1(2022), pp. 176.1-176.5. [10.1186/s13054-022-04049-2]

Impact of dexamethasone on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients: a propensity-matched cohort study

V. Scaravilli
Primo
;
A. Guzzardella
Secondo
;
A. Pesenti;A. Bandera
Penultimo
;
G. Grasselli
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Objective To assess the impact of treatment with steroids on the incidence and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Design Propensity-matched retrospective cohort study from February 24 to December 31, 2020, in 4 dedicated COVID-19 Intensive Care Units (ICU) in Lombardy (Italy). Patients Adult consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were subdivided into two groups: (1) treated with low-dose corticosteroids (dexamethasone 6 mg/day intravenous for 10 days) (DEXA+); (2) not treated with corticosteroids (DEXA-). A propensity score matching procedure (1:1 ratio) identified patients' cohorts based on: age, weight, PEEP Level, PaO2/FiO(2) ratio, non-respiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), C reactive protein plasma concentration at admission, sex and admission hospital (exact matching). Intervention Dexamethasone 6 mg/day intravenous for 10 days from hospital admission. Measurements and main results Seven hundred and thirty-nine patients were included, and the propensity-score matching identified two groups of 158 subjects each. Eighty-nine (56%) DEXA+ versus 55 (34%) DEXA- patients developed a VAP (RR 1.61 (1.26-2.098), p = 0.0001), after similar time from hospitalization, ICU admission and intubation. DEXA+ patients had higher crude VAP incidence rate (49.58 (49.26-49.91) vs. 31.65 (31.38-31.91)VAP*1000/pd), (IRR 1.57 (1.55-1.58), p < 0.0001) and risk for VAP (HR 1.81 (1.31-2.50), p = 0.0003), with longer ICU LOS and invasive mechanical ventilation but similar mortality (RR 1.17 (0.85-1.63), p = 0.3332). VAPs were similarly due to G+ bacteria (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) and G- bacteria (mostly Enterobacterales). Forty-one (28%) VAPs were due to multi-drug resistant bacteria. VAP was associated with almost doubled ICU and hospital LOS and invasive mechanical ventilation, and increased mortality (RR 1.64 [1.02-2.65], p = 0.040) with no differences among patients' groups. Conclusions Critically ill COVID-19 patients are at high risk for VAP, frequently caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, and the risk is increased by corticosteroid treatment. Trial registration: NCT04388670, retrospectively registered May 14, 2020.
COVID-19; Corticosteroids; Critical care; Hospital-acquired infections; Intensive care unit; Ventilator-associated pneumonia; Adult; Cohort Studies; Dexamethasone; Humans; Incidence; Intensive Care Units; Respiration, Artificial; Retrospective Studies; COVID-19; Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated
Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/944806
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