Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common inherited disorder responsible for an increased risk of developing cancers at different sites, most frequently in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, caused by a germline pathogenic variant affecting the DNA mismatch repair system. Surveillance and risk-reducing procedures are currently available and warranted for LS patients, depending on underlying germline mutation, and are focused on relevant targets for early cancer diagnosis or primary prevention. Although pharmacological approaches for preventing LS-associated cancer development were started many years ago, to date, aspirin remains the most studied drug intervention and the only one suggested by the main surveillance guidelines, despite the conflicting findings. Furthermore, we also note that remarkable advances in anticancer drug discovery have given a significant boost to the application of novel immunological strategies such as immunocheckpoint inhibitors and vaccines, not only for cancer treatment, but also in a preventive setting. In this review, we outline the clinical, biologic, genetic, and morphological features of LS as well as the recent three-pathways carcinogenesis model. Furthermore, we provide an update on the dedicated screening, surveillance, and risk-reducing strategies for LS patients and describe emerging opportunities of harnessing the immune system.

Lynch syndrome : from carcinogenesis to prevention interventions / D. Gambini, S. Ferrero, E. Kuhn. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:17(2022 Aug 24), pp. 4102.1-4102.21. [10.3390/cancers14174102]

Lynch syndrome : from carcinogenesis to prevention interventions

S. FERRERO BOGETTO;E. Kuhn
2022

Abstract

Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common inherited disorder responsible for an increased risk of developing cancers at different sites, most frequently in the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, caused by a germline pathogenic variant affecting the DNA mismatch repair system. Surveillance and risk-reducing procedures are currently available and warranted for LS patients, depending on underlying germline mutation, and are focused on relevant targets for early cancer diagnosis or primary prevention. Although pharmacological approaches for preventing LS-associated cancer development were started many years ago, to date, aspirin remains the most studied drug intervention and the only one suggested by the main surveillance guidelines, despite the conflicting findings. Furthermore, we also note that remarkable advances in anticancer drug discovery have given a significant boost to the application of novel immunological strategies such as immunocheckpoint inhibitors and vaccines, not only for cancer treatment, but also in a preventive setting. In this review, we outline the clinical, biologic, genetic, and morphological features of LS as well as the recent three-pathways carcinogenesis model. Furthermore, we provide an update on the dedicated screening, surveillance, and risk-reducing strategies for LS patients and describe emerging opportunities of harnessing the immune system.
Lynch syndrome; carcinogenesis; colorectal cancer; endometrial cancer; ovarian cancer; prevention
Settore MED/08 - Anatomia Patologica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/940381
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