Stress is a major precipitating factor for psychiatric disorders and its effects may depend on its duration and intensity. Of note, there are differences in individual susceptibility to stress, with some subjects displaying vulnerability and others showing resistance. Furthermore, the ability to react to stressful-life events can alter the response to a subsequent new stressor. Hence, we investigated whether the vulnerability and resilience to the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm, in terms of the hedonic phenotype, are paralleled by a different response when facing a novel acute challenge. Specifically, rats submitted to CMS were stratified based on their sucrose intake into vulnerable (anhedonic rats showing reduce intake of sucrose) and resilient (rats not showing the anhedonic-like behavior) subgroups and then further exposed to an acute restraint stress (ARS). Then, neuronal activation was investigated by measuring the gene expression of early immediate (IEG) genes such as Arc and Cfos and early response (ERG) genes, such as Gadd45 beta, Sgk1, Dusp1, and Nr4a1, in brain regions that play a crucial role in the stress response. We found that resilient rats preserve the ability to increase ERG expression following the ARS selectively in the ventral hippocampus. Conversely, such ability is lost in vulnerable rats. Interestingly, the recovery from the anhedonic phenotype observed in vulnerable rats after 3 weeks of rest from the CMS procedure also parallels the restoration of the ability to adequately respond to the challenge. In conclusion, these findings support the role of the ventral subregion of the hippocampus in the management of both chronic and acute stress response and point to this brain subregion as a critical target for a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at promoting stress resilience.

Resilience to chronic mild stress-induced anhedonia preserves the ability of the ventral hippocampus to respond to an acute challenge / P. Brivio, M.T. Gallo, P. Gruca, M. Lason, E. Litwa, F. Fumagalli, M. Papp, F. Calabrese. - In: EUROPEAN ARCHIVES OF PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE. - ISSN 0940-1334. - (2022). [Epub ahead of print] [10.1007/s00406-022-01470-0]

Resilience to chronic mild stress-induced anhedonia preserves the ability of the ventral hippocampus to respond to an acute challenge

P. Brivio
Primo
;
M.T. Gallo
Secondo
;
F. Fumagalli;F. Calabrese
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Stress is a major precipitating factor for psychiatric disorders and its effects may depend on its duration and intensity. Of note, there are differences in individual susceptibility to stress, with some subjects displaying vulnerability and others showing resistance. Furthermore, the ability to react to stressful-life events can alter the response to a subsequent new stressor. Hence, we investigated whether the vulnerability and resilience to the chronic mild stress (CMS) paradigm, in terms of the hedonic phenotype, are paralleled by a different response when facing a novel acute challenge. Specifically, rats submitted to CMS were stratified based on their sucrose intake into vulnerable (anhedonic rats showing reduce intake of sucrose) and resilient (rats not showing the anhedonic-like behavior) subgroups and then further exposed to an acute restraint stress (ARS). Then, neuronal activation was investigated by measuring the gene expression of early immediate (IEG) genes such as Arc and Cfos and early response (ERG) genes, such as Gadd45 beta, Sgk1, Dusp1, and Nr4a1, in brain regions that play a crucial role in the stress response. We found that resilient rats preserve the ability to increase ERG expression following the ARS selectively in the ventral hippocampus. Conversely, such ability is lost in vulnerable rats. Interestingly, the recovery from the anhedonic phenotype observed in vulnerable rats after 3 weeks of rest from the CMS procedure also parallels the restoration of the ability to adequately respond to the challenge. In conclusion, these findings support the role of the ventral subregion of the hippocampus in the management of both chronic and acute stress response and point to this brain subregion as a critical target for a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at promoting stress resilience.
Acute stress; Chronic stress; Early response genes; Immediate early genes; Resilience; Vulnerability
Settore BIO/14 - Farmacologia
26-ago-2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/940103
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