One of the main causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest, approximately 70% of patients die before hospital discharge due to post-resuscitation myocardial and cerebral dysfunction. In experimental models, myocardial dysfunction after cardiac arrest, characterized by an impairment in both left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, has been described as reversible but very little data are available in cardiac arrest models associated with AMI in pigs. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line diagnostic test for the assessment of myocardial dysfunction, structural changes and/or AMI extension. In this pig model of ischemic cardiac arrest, echocardiography was done at baseline and 2-4 and 96 hours after resuscitation. In the acute phase, the examinations are done in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs (weight 39.8 ± 0.6 kg) and ECG is recorded continuously. Mono-and bi-dimensional, Doppler and tissue Doppler recordings are acquired. Aortic and left atrium diameter, end-systolic and end-diastolic left ventricular wall thicknesses, end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters and shortening fraction (SF) are measured. Apical 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-chamber views are acquired, LV volumes and ejection fraction are calculated. Segmental wall motion analysis is done to detect the localization and estimate the extent of myocardial infarction. Pulsed Wave Doppler echocardiography is used to record trans-mitral flow velocities from a 4-apical chamber view and trans-aortic flow from a 5-chamber view to calculate LV cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV). Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) of LV lateral and septal mitral anulus is recorded (TDI septal and lateral s', e', a' velocities). All the recordings and measurements are done according to the recommendations of the American and European Societies of Echocardiography Guidelines.

Transthoracic Echocardiography to Assess Post-Resuscitation Left Ventricular Dysfunction After Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiac Arrest in Pigs / D. De Giorgio, D. Olivari, F. Fumagalli, L. Staszewsky, G. Ristagno. - In: JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS. - ISSN 1940-087X. - 2022:185(2022 Jul), pp. e63888.1-e63888.14. [10.3791/63888]

Transthoracic Echocardiography to Assess Post-Resuscitation Left Ventricular Dysfunction After Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiac Arrest in Pigs

G. Ristagno
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

One of the main causes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest, approximately 70% of patients die before hospital discharge due to post-resuscitation myocardial and cerebral dysfunction. In experimental models, myocardial dysfunction after cardiac arrest, characterized by an impairment in both left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, has been described as reversible but very little data are available in cardiac arrest models associated with AMI in pigs. Transthoracic echocardiography is the first-line diagnostic test for the assessment of myocardial dysfunction, structural changes and/or AMI extension. In this pig model of ischemic cardiac arrest, echocardiography was done at baseline and 2-4 and 96 hours after resuscitation. In the acute phase, the examinations are done in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs (weight 39.8 ± 0.6 kg) and ECG is recorded continuously. Mono-and bi-dimensional, Doppler and tissue Doppler recordings are acquired. Aortic and left atrium diameter, end-systolic and end-diastolic left ventricular wall thicknesses, end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters and shortening fraction (SF) are measured. Apical 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-chamber views are acquired, LV volumes and ejection fraction are calculated. Segmental wall motion analysis is done to detect the localization and estimate the extent of myocardial infarction. Pulsed Wave Doppler echocardiography is used to record trans-mitral flow velocities from a 4-apical chamber view and trans-aortic flow from a 5-chamber view to calculate LV cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV). Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) of LV lateral and septal mitral anulus is recorded (TDI septal and lateral s', e', a' velocities). All the recordings and measurements are done according to the recommendations of the American and European Societies of Echocardiography Guidelines.
Animals; Diastole; Echocardiography; Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed; Swine; Ventricular Function, Left; Heart Arrest; Myocardial Infarction; Ventricular Dysfunction; Left;
Settore MED/41 - Anestesiologia
Article (author)
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
jove-protocol-63888-transthoracic-echocardiography-to-assess-postresuscitation-left-ventricular-dysfunction-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-cardiac-arrest-in-pigs.pdf

accesso riservato

Tipologia: Publisher's version/PDF
Dimensione 909.24 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
909.24 kB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/939682
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact