We describe 3 cases of solitary sclerosis (SS), a rare condition characterized by a single inflammatory demyelinating lesion in the white matter of the brain or spinal cord. All patients had progressive limb motor impairment (patient 1, 66-year-old female: left spastic hemiparesis; patient 2, 39-year-old male: right spastic hemiparesis; patient 3, 42-year-old female: proximally predominant left upper limb weakness with amyotrophy and fasciculations). In all patients, MRI disclosed a single small T2-hyperintense demyelinating lesion: in the right anterior paramedian upper medulla, in the median-left paramedian anterior lower medulla, and in the left paramedian anterior cervical spinal cord at C4 level, respectively. In patients 1 and 2, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) demonstrated altered motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and increased central motor conduction time (CMCT) in the affected limbs; in patient 3, needle EMG revealed chronic neurogenic changes in C5-C7 muscles of left upper limb. Patients 1 and 2 had normal brain F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET). CSF analysis demonstrated IgG oligoclonal bands in all patients. In patients 2 and 3, levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL) in CSF and serum, respectively, were within normal limits. The three cases were consistent with the diagnosis of SS. Notably, while the first two cases mimicked Mills' syndrome (the hemiparetic variant of primary lateral sclerosis, PLS), the third one was rather reminiscent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This suggests including SS in the differential diagnosis not only of PLS, but also of ALS. We also report the first quantification of NFL levels in SS.

Progressive motor neuron syndromes with single CNS lesions and CSF oligoclonal bands : never forget solitary sclerosis! / E. Giacopuzzi Grigoli, C. Cinnante, P.E. Doneddu, N. Calcagno, S. Lenti, A. Ciammola, L. Maderna, N. Ticozzi, M. Castellani, S. Beretta, M. Rovaris, V. Silani, F. Verde. - In: NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES. - ISSN 1590-1874. - 43:12(2022 Dec), pp. 6951-6954. [10.1007/s10072-022-06407-y]

Progressive motor neuron syndromes with single CNS lesions and CSF oligoclonal bands : never forget solitary sclerosis!

E. Giacopuzzi Grigoli
Primo
;
N. Calcagno;S. Lenti;N. Ticozzi;V. Silani;F. Verde
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

We describe 3 cases of solitary sclerosis (SS), a rare condition characterized by a single inflammatory demyelinating lesion in the white matter of the brain or spinal cord. All patients had progressive limb motor impairment (patient 1, 66-year-old female: left spastic hemiparesis; patient 2, 39-year-old male: right spastic hemiparesis; patient 3, 42-year-old female: proximally predominant left upper limb weakness with amyotrophy and fasciculations). In all patients, MRI disclosed a single small T2-hyperintense demyelinating lesion: in the right anterior paramedian upper medulla, in the median-left paramedian anterior lower medulla, and in the left paramedian anterior cervical spinal cord at C4 level, respectively. In patients 1 and 2, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) demonstrated altered motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and increased central motor conduction time (CMCT) in the affected limbs; in patient 3, needle EMG revealed chronic neurogenic changes in C5-C7 muscles of left upper limb. Patients 1 and 2 had normal brain F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET). CSF analysis demonstrated IgG oligoclonal bands in all patients. In patients 2 and 3, levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL) in CSF and serum, respectively, were within normal limits. The three cases were consistent with the diagnosis of SS. Notably, while the first two cases mimicked Mills' syndrome (the hemiparetic variant of primary lateral sclerosis, PLS), the third one was rather reminiscent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This suggests including SS in the differential diagnosis not only of PLS, but also of ALS. We also report the first quantification of NFL levels in SS.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); Demyelinating diseases; Motor neuron disease (MND); Oligoclonal bands; Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS); Solitary sclerosis
Settore MED/26 - Neurologia
Settore MED/37 - Neuroradiologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/939031
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