Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques, such as direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), cause neurophysiological and behavioral modifications as responses to the electric field are induced in the brain. Estimations of such electric fields are based mainly on computational studies, and in vivo measurements have been used to expand the current knowledge. Here, we review the current tDCS- and tACS-induced electric fields estimations as they are recorded in humans and non-human primates using intracerebral electrodes. Direct currents and alternating currents were applied with heterogeneous protocols, and the recording procedures were characterized by a tentative methodology. However, for the clinical stimulation protocols, an injected current seems to reach the brain, even at deep structures. The stimulation parameters (e.g., intensity, frequency and phase), the electrodes’ positions and personal anatomy determine whether the intensities might be high enough to affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell activity, also deep brain structures.

Electric Fields Induced in the Brain by Transcranial Electric Stimulation: A Review of In Vivo Recordings / M. Guidetti, M. Arlotti, T. Bocci, A. Maria Bianchi, M. Parazzini, R. Ferrucci, A. Priori. - In: BIOMEDICINES. - ISSN 2227-9059. - 10:10(2022 Sep 20), pp. 2333.1-2333.25. [10.3390/biomedicines10102333]

Electric Fields Induced in the Brain by Transcranial Electric Stimulation: A Review of In Vivo Recordings

M. Guidetti
Primo
;
T. Bocci;R. Ferrucci
Penultimo
;
A. Priori
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques, such as direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), cause neurophysiological and behavioral modifications as responses to the electric field are induced in the brain. Estimations of such electric fields are based mainly on computational studies, and in vivo measurements have been used to expand the current knowledge. Here, we review the current tDCS- and tACS-induced electric fields estimations as they are recorded in humans and non-human primates using intracerebral electrodes. Direct currents and alternating currents were applied with heterogeneous protocols, and the recording procedures were characterized by a tentative methodology. However, for the clinical stimulation protocols, an injected current seems to reach the brain, even at deep structures. The stimulation parameters (e.g., intensity, frequency and phase), the electrodes’ positions and personal anatomy determine whether the intensities might be high enough to affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell activity, also deep brain structures.
neuromodulation; transcranial electric stimulation; electric fields; intracranial recordings; transcranial direct current stimulation; transcranial alternating current stimulation;
Settore MED/26 - Neurologia
Settore MED/48 -Scienze Infermie.e Tecniche Neuro-Psichiatriche e Riabilitattive
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/938954
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