Background Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries (TDI) are wounds or ruptures of the diaphragm due to thoraco-abdominal trauma. Nowadays, CT-scan is considered the gold standard for TDI diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the current diagnostic accuracy of CT-scan in the diagnosis of TDI and describe the management of this type of injury. Methods A systematic review was conducted according to the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Two independent reviewers searched the literature in a systematic fashion using online databases, including Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar. Human studies investigating the diagnosis and the following management of TDI were included. Pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative likelihood (with corresponding 95% confidence intervals) were analyzed based on the bivariate model for blunt TDI. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort studies was used for the quality assessment of selected articles. The PROSPERO registration number was as follows: CRD42022301282. Results Fifteen studies published between 2001 and 2019 were included. All included studies reported a contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the preferred method to obtain diagnostic imaging. Left-sided TDI was the type of injury most frequently found. False negative TDI at CT-scan were more frequent than false positive TDI (11.13 ± 23.24 vs. 2.66 ± 6.65). Six studies on blunt TDI were included in the meta-analysis, showing a high sensitivity [0.80 (95%CI 0.65–0.90)] and specificity [0.98 (95%CI 0.89–1.00)] of the CT-scan in detecting TDI. Overall, 7 articles reported laparotomy as the method of choice to repair TDI. Only 3 studies reported a laparoscopic and/or thoracoscopic approach to TDI repair. Conclusion CT-scan has a good sensitivity and specificity for blunt TDI diagnosis. However, TDI diagnosis and management are often delayed. The use of water-soluble contrast in CT-scan should be considered when the diagnosis of TDI is not defined after the first scan, and clinical suspicion is still high. In this context, a highly trained trauma team is essential for trauma management and correct imaging interpretation.

Current trends in the diagnosis and management of traumatic diaphragmatic injuries: A systematic review and a diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis of blunt trauma / E. Reitano, S.P.B. Cioffi, C. Airoldi, O. Chiara, G. La Greca, S. Cimbanassi. - In: INJURY. - ISSN 0020-1383. - (2022), pp. 1-10. [Epub ahead of print] [10.1016/j.injury.2022.07.002]

Current trends in the diagnosis and management of traumatic diaphragmatic injuries: A systematic review and a diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis of blunt trauma

S.P.B. Cioffi;O. Chiara;S. Cimbanassi
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Background Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries (TDI) are wounds or ruptures of the diaphragm due to thoraco-abdominal trauma. Nowadays, CT-scan is considered the gold standard for TDI diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the current diagnostic accuracy of CT-scan in the diagnosis of TDI and describe the management of this type of injury. Methods A systematic review was conducted according to the 2009 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Two independent reviewers searched the literature in a systematic fashion using online databases, including Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar. Human studies investigating the diagnosis and the following management of TDI were included. Pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative likelihood (with corresponding 95% confidence intervals) were analyzed based on the bivariate model for blunt TDI. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort studies was used for the quality assessment of selected articles. The PROSPERO registration number was as follows: CRD42022301282. Results Fifteen studies published between 2001 and 2019 were included. All included studies reported a contrast-enhanced computed tomography as the preferred method to obtain diagnostic imaging. Left-sided TDI was the type of injury most frequently found. False negative TDI at CT-scan were more frequent than false positive TDI (11.13 ± 23.24 vs. 2.66 ± 6.65). Six studies on blunt TDI were included in the meta-analysis, showing a high sensitivity [0.80 (95%CI 0.65–0.90)] and specificity [0.98 (95%CI 0.89–1.00)] of the CT-scan in detecting TDI. Overall, 7 articles reported laparotomy as the method of choice to repair TDI. Only 3 studies reported a laparoscopic and/or thoracoscopic approach to TDI repair. Conclusion CT-scan has a good sensitivity and specificity for blunt TDI diagnosis. However, TDI diagnosis and management are often delayed. The use of water-soluble contrast in CT-scan should be considered when the diagnosis of TDI is not defined after the first scan, and clinical suspicion is still high. In this context, a highly trained trauma team is essential for trauma management and correct imaging interpretation.
CT-scan; Trauma; Traumatic diaphragmatic injuries; Traumatic injuries;
Settore MED/18 - Chirurgia Generale
2022
2-lug-2022
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/938824
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