Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a temporary infertility characterized by the suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, induced by the inhibition of the hypothalamic pulsatile secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), in the presence of stressors, including eating disorders, excessive exercise, and psychological distress. Although the stressful factors that may lead to FHA are well-established, little is known about the inter-individual variability in response to stress and the consequent inhibition of the HPG axis. Not all women, indeed, manifest FHA in presence of stressful conditions. Recent studies highlighted a genetic contribution to FHA. Rare or polymorphic variants in genes that control the development and/or function of GnRH neurons may contribute, indeed, to the adaptability of the reproductive axis to stress factors. Also epigenetic changes have been associated with different pathways involved in the HPG axis and therefore, take part in FHA and confer a personal predisposition to anovulation consequent to a stressful event, or represent biological markers of response to stress. This review summarizes recent advances in the identification of the contribution of (epi)genetics to FHA and to long-term complications of functional amenorrhea, and reports insights into the involvement of additional genetic loci in FHA development on the bases of the clinical and molecular overlap with other gynecological and/or psychological conditions. Finally, we describe the promising application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a new approach to investigate the molecular pathways involved in FHA.

Epigenetics of functional hypothalamic amenorrheaIn: FRONTIERS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY. - ISSN 1664-2392. - 13:(2022), pp. 953431.1-953431.12. [10.3389/fendo.2022.953431]

Epigenetics of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea

L. Fontana;E. Garzia;G. Marfia;V. Galiano;M. Miozzo
2022

Abstract

Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a temporary infertility characterized by the suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, induced by the inhibition of the hypothalamic pulsatile secretion of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), in the presence of stressors, including eating disorders, excessive exercise, and psychological distress. Although the stressful factors that may lead to FHA are well-established, little is known about the inter-individual variability in response to stress and the consequent inhibition of the HPG axis. Not all women, indeed, manifest FHA in presence of stressful conditions. Recent studies highlighted a genetic contribution to FHA. Rare or polymorphic variants in genes that control the development and/or function of GnRH neurons may contribute, indeed, to the adaptability of the reproductive axis to stress factors. Also epigenetic changes have been associated with different pathways involved in the HPG axis and therefore, take part in FHA and confer a personal predisposition to anovulation consequent to a stressful event, or represent biological markers of response to stress. This review summarizes recent advances in the identification of the contribution of (epi)genetics to FHA and to long-term complications of functional amenorrhea, and reports insights into the involvement of additional genetic loci in FHA development on the bases of the clinical and molecular overlap with other gynecological and/or psychological conditions. Finally, we describe the promising application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a new approach to investigate the molecular pathways involved in FHA.
anorexia nervosa; delayed puberty; epigenetics; functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA); susceptibility genes
Settore MED/03 - Genetica Medica
PSRL222SCENT_01 - Piano di Sostegno alla Ricerca 2015-2017 - Linea 2 "Dotazione annuale per attività istituzionali" (anno 2021) - CENTANNI, STEFANO - PSR_LINEA2_ / Piano di sviluppo di ricerca - Dotazioni dipartimentali - Linea 2 - 2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/938176
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