Autophagy is a highly regulated process wherein an unwanted cargo of damaged and dysfunctional cytoplasmic components is removed, delivered to lysosomes for degradation, and released back into the cytoplasm. Accumulating evidence suggests an important role of autophagy in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus, with profound effects on both innate and adaptive immunity. Autophagy downregulation results in the inhibition of antigen presenting cells, reduced release of neutrophil extracellular traps and decreased activation of effector T and B cells, leading to reduced autoantibody production and attenuated type 1 interferon signaling. However, defective autophagy may accelerate the production of other inflammatory cytokines and reduce the clearance of apoptotic cells, promoting lupus development. In addition, autophagy dysfunction can concur to the pathogenesis of kidney injury in lupus nephritis. Autophagy is a pivotal mechanism to maintain podocyte integrity and endothelial cell survival. Several animal models have demonstrated that defective autophagy leads to podocyte injury and can promote an endothelial pro-inflammatory and atherogenic phenotype. Moreover, autophagy is a key homeostatic regulator of renal tubular cells, and recent evidence has pointed out that chronic autophagy deficiency may accelerate kidney fibrosis. Targeting autophagy may theoretically improve lupus nephritis outcomes, but novel, non-invasive methods to measure and monitor autophagic activity are urgently needed. In addition, the extent and timing of autophagy inhibition still require additional studies before clinical translation may be attempted. In this review, we will also discuss the effect of several clinically available drugs that can regulate the autophagic flux and their effect in lupus nephritis patients.

Autophagy in lupus nephritis: A delicate balance between regulation and disease / M.A. Podesta, I. Faravelli, C. Ponticelli. - In: AUTOIMMUNITY REVIEWS. - ISSN 1568-9972. - 21:8(2022 Aug), pp. 103132.1-103132.7. [10.1016/j.autrev.2022.103132]

Autophagy in lupus nephritis: A delicate balance between regulation and disease

M.A. Podesta
Primo
;
I. Faravelli
Penultimo
;
2022

Abstract

Autophagy is a highly regulated process wherein an unwanted cargo of damaged and dysfunctional cytoplasmic components is removed, delivered to lysosomes for degradation, and released back into the cytoplasm. Accumulating evidence suggests an important role of autophagy in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus, with profound effects on both innate and adaptive immunity. Autophagy downregulation results in the inhibition of antigen presenting cells, reduced release of neutrophil extracellular traps and decreased activation of effector T and B cells, leading to reduced autoantibody production and attenuated type 1 interferon signaling. However, defective autophagy may accelerate the production of other inflammatory cytokines and reduce the clearance of apoptotic cells, promoting lupus development. In addition, autophagy dysfunction can concur to the pathogenesis of kidney injury in lupus nephritis. Autophagy is a pivotal mechanism to maintain podocyte integrity and endothelial cell survival. Several animal models have demonstrated that defective autophagy leads to podocyte injury and can promote an endothelial pro-inflammatory and atherogenic phenotype. Moreover, autophagy is a key homeostatic regulator of renal tubular cells, and recent evidence has pointed out that chronic autophagy deficiency may accelerate kidney fibrosis. Targeting autophagy may theoretically improve lupus nephritis outcomes, but novel, non-invasive methods to measure and monitor autophagic activity are urgently needed. In addition, the extent and timing of autophagy inhibition still require additional studies before clinical translation may be attempted. In this review, we will also discuss the effect of several clinically available drugs that can regulate the autophagic flux and their effect in lupus nephritis patients.
Autophagy; Kidney; Lupus; Animals; Autophagy; Humans; Kidney; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Lupus Nephritis; Podocytes
Settore MED/14 - Nefrologia
Settore MED/16 - Reumatologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/937188
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