Meningococcal disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis; 13 serogroups have been identified and differentiated from each other through their capsular polysaccharide. Serotypes A, B, C, W, X, and Y are responsible for nearly all infections worldwide. The most common clinical manifestations are meningitis and invasive meningococcal disease, both characterized by high mortality and long-term sequelae. The infection rate is higher in children younger than 1 year and in adolescents, who are frequently asymptomatic carriers. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infection and transmission. Currently, both monovalent meningococcal vaccines (against A, B, and C serotypes) and quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines (against serogroups ACYW) are available and recommended according to local epidemiology. The purpose of this article is to describe the meningococcal vaccines and to identify instruments that are useful for reducing transmission and implementing the vaccination coverage. This aim could be reached by switching from the monovalent to the quadrivalent vaccine in the first year of life, increasing vaccine promotion against ACYW serotypes among adolescents, and extending the free offer of the anti-meningococcal B vaccine to teens, co-administering it with others proposed in the same age group. Greater awareness of the severity of the disease and increased health education through web and social networks could represent the best strategies for promoting adhesion and active participation in the vaccination campaign. Finally, the development of a licensed universal meningococcal vaccine should be another important objective.

Meningococcal Disease in Pediatric Age: A Focus on Epidemiology and Prevention / G.M. Di Pietro, G. Biffi, M.L. Castellazzi, C. Tagliabue, R. Pinzani, S. Bosis, P.G. Marchisio. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. - ISSN 1660-4601. - 19:7(2022 Mar 29), pp. 4035.1-4035.16. [10.3390/ijerph19074035]

Meningococcal Disease in Pediatric Age: A Focus on Epidemiology and Prevention

G. Biffi;P.G. Marchisio
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Meningococcal disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis; 13 serogroups have been identified and differentiated from each other through their capsular polysaccharide. Serotypes A, B, C, W, X, and Y are responsible for nearly all infections worldwide. The most common clinical manifestations are meningitis and invasive meningococcal disease, both characterized by high mortality and long-term sequelae. The infection rate is higher in children younger than 1 year and in adolescents, who are frequently asymptomatic carriers. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infection and transmission. Currently, both monovalent meningococcal vaccines (against A, B, and C serotypes) and quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines (against serogroups ACYW) are available and recommended according to local epidemiology. The purpose of this article is to describe the meningococcal vaccines and to identify instruments that are useful for reducing transmission and implementing the vaccination coverage. This aim could be reached by switching from the monovalent to the quadrivalent vaccine in the first year of life, increasing vaccine promotion against ACYW serotypes among adolescents, and extending the free offer of the anti-meningococcal B vaccine to teens, co-administering it with others proposed in the same age group. Greater awareness of the severity of the disease and increased health education through web and social networks could represent the best strategies for promoting adhesion and active participation in the vaccination campaign. Finally, the development of a licensed universal meningococcal vaccine should be another important objective.
adolescents; children; immunization program; invasive meningococcal disease; meningococcal vaccines; Adolescent; Child; Humans; Immunization Programs; Vaccination; Vaccines, Conjugate; Meningitis, Meningococcal; Meningococcal Infections; Meningococcal Vaccines; Neisseria meningitidis
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/935716
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