Background The oral ecosystem conditions dental health, and is known to be positively modified by oral hygiene which cannot always be performed between meals, especially outside home. It is therefore important to identify the practices to be adopted to influence the oral environment in an anticariogenic direction. Milk and cheese are considered functional foods and have a role on oral health. There are several mechanisms by which cheese exerts its beneficial effects on teeth. The aim of the present study was to examine whether short term consumption of hard cheese would affect the oral pH and microbial flora of healthy adults modifying ecological oral environment. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach was applied to study the effect of Italian Grana Padano (GP), as a prototype of typical hard cheese, on the oral microbiota composition. Finally, we explored Streptococcusmutans/sanguinis ratio as a marker of protective biofilm composition. Methods Nine oral-healthy adults were instructed to eat 25 gr of GP cheese for 5 consecutive days. Three time points were chosen for supragingival samples collection and pH measurement. 16S rRNA-gene sequences were obtained both from oral samples and GP cheese using the MiSeq platform and analyzed against the expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD). ProgPerm was used to perform statistical analyses to investigate strain differential representation after cheese consumption. Results Taxonomic analyses of the oral microbiota revealed that Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. GP cheese significantly modifies oral pH, causing a shift toward basic conditions which are kept for a few hours. The Streptococcus mutans/Streptococcus sanguinis ratio lowers in the last observed timepoint. Conclusion Our results reveal that a portion of GP cheese eaten after dinner provides important micronutrients (i.e. calcium, vitamins and some aminoacids such as arginine) and changes oral pH toward basic conditions, resulting in a light modification of the oral microbiome towards the reduction of the overall amount of acidophilic bacteria. Furthermore, the S.mutans/S. sanguinis ratio is reduced, contributing to obtain a more protecting environment towards caries establishment and evolution.

Oral ecological environment modifications by hard-cheese: from pH to microbiome: a prospective cohort study based on 16S rRNA metabarcoding approach / E.C. Lorenzini, B. Lazzari, G.M. Tartaglia, G. Farronato, V. Lanteri, S. Botti, F. Biscarini, P. Cozzi, A. Stella. - In: JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1479-5876. - 20:1(2022), pp. 312.1-312.14. [10.1186/s12967-022-03506-4]

Oral ecological environment modifications by hard-cheese: from pH to microbiome: a prospective cohort study based on 16S rRNA metabarcoding approach

E.C. Lorenzini
Primo
;
G.M. Tartaglia;G. Farronato;V. Lanteri;P. Cozzi
Penultimo
;
2022

Abstract

Background The oral ecosystem conditions dental health, and is known to be positively modified by oral hygiene which cannot always be performed between meals, especially outside home. It is therefore important to identify the practices to be adopted to influence the oral environment in an anticariogenic direction. Milk and cheese are considered functional foods and have a role on oral health. There are several mechanisms by which cheese exerts its beneficial effects on teeth. The aim of the present study was to examine whether short term consumption of hard cheese would affect the oral pH and microbial flora of healthy adults modifying ecological oral environment. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach was applied to study the effect of Italian Grana Padano (GP), as a prototype of typical hard cheese, on the oral microbiota composition. Finally, we explored Streptococcusmutans/sanguinis ratio as a marker of protective biofilm composition. Methods Nine oral-healthy adults were instructed to eat 25 gr of GP cheese for 5 consecutive days. Three time points were chosen for supragingival samples collection and pH measurement. 16S rRNA-gene sequences were obtained both from oral samples and GP cheese using the MiSeq platform and analyzed against the expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD). ProgPerm was used to perform statistical analyses to investigate strain differential representation after cheese consumption. Results Taxonomic analyses of the oral microbiota revealed that Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. GP cheese significantly modifies oral pH, causing a shift toward basic conditions which are kept for a few hours. The Streptococcus mutans/Streptococcus sanguinis ratio lowers in the last observed timepoint. Conclusion Our results reveal that a portion of GP cheese eaten after dinner provides important micronutrients (i.e. calcium, vitamins and some aminoacids such as arginine) and changes oral pH toward basic conditions, resulting in a light modification of the oral microbiome towards the reduction of the overall amount of acidophilic bacteria. Furthermore, the S.mutans/S. sanguinis ratio is reduced, contributing to obtain a more protecting environment towards caries establishment and evolution.
16S rRNA metabarcoding; Cheese; Dental caries; Next generation sequencing; Oral microbiota; Periodontitis; pH; Adult; Humans; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Prospective Studies; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S; Streptococcus mutans; Cheese; Dental Caries; Microbiota
Settore MED/50 - Scienze Tecniche Mediche Applicate
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/935112
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