During the 90 days following hospitalization for acute heart failure, the ejection fraction and type of discharge medications have been shown in clinical trials to have little effect on mortality. We examined the recent literature addressing brain-related etiologies of sudden death following heart failure. Two mechanisms of sudden unexpected death have been suggested to possibly result from four significant influences on pathophysiology in the brain. The two causes of sudden death are (1) severe cardiac arrhythmia and (2) neurogenic pulmonary edema. They are both mediated through the brainstem autonomic nuclei generally and executed specifically through the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. The four significant influences on pathophysiology, all contributing to ischemia in the brainstem autonomic nuclei, are: (1) Hyper-stimulation of neurons in the solitary tract nucleus, increasing their metabolic requirements; (2) Inadequate blood flow at a vascular watershed terminus, perfusing the autonomic nuclei; (3) Additionally decreased blood flow, globally throughout the brain, following vasoconstriction related to relative hyperventilation and decreased pCO2 levels; (4) Gravitational ischemia in the brainstem caused by the weight of the cerebral hemispheres sitting above the brainstem. Changes in head tilt release gravitational ischemia in the brain. There is no specific head position relative to gravity that is considered favorable or unfavorable for an extended period of time, longer than 24 h. Even a small degree of head elevation, used in managing pulmonary congestion, may increase gravitational ischemia in the posterior fossa and brainstem. In this paper, we suggest a new and important research avenue for intervening in cardiac arrhythmias and preventing their occurrence through the non-invasive use of head-tilting and other head repositioning maneuvers. This could potentially help many geriatric patients with heart failure, who have decreased mobility in bed, and who tend to stay in one position longer, thereby increasing gravitational ischemia in the brain.

Acute Heart Failure, 90-Day Mortality, and Gravitational Ischemia in the Brain / J. Howard Jaster, G.M.E. Ottaviani. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 12:6(2022 Jun 15), pp. 1473.1-1473.8. [10.3390/diagnostics12061473]

Acute Heart Failure, 90-Day Mortality, and Gravitational Ischemia in the Brain

G.M.E. Ottaviani
Ultimo
Supervision
2022

Abstract

During the 90 days following hospitalization for acute heart failure, the ejection fraction and type of discharge medications have been shown in clinical trials to have little effect on mortality. We examined the recent literature addressing brain-related etiologies of sudden death following heart failure. Two mechanisms of sudden unexpected death have been suggested to possibly result from four significant influences on pathophysiology in the brain. The two causes of sudden death are (1) severe cardiac arrhythmia and (2) neurogenic pulmonary edema. They are both mediated through the brainstem autonomic nuclei generally and executed specifically through the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. The four significant influences on pathophysiology, all contributing to ischemia in the brainstem autonomic nuclei, are: (1) Hyper-stimulation of neurons in the solitary tract nucleus, increasing their metabolic requirements; (2) Inadequate blood flow at a vascular watershed terminus, perfusing the autonomic nuclei; (3) Additionally decreased blood flow, globally throughout the brain, following vasoconstriction related to relative hyperventilation and decreased pCO2 levels; (4) Gravitational ischemia in the brainstem caused by the weight of the cerebral hemispheres sitting above the brainstem. Changes in head tilt release gravitational ischemia in the brain. There is no specific head position relative to gravity that is considered favorable or unfavorable for an extended period of time, longer than 24 h. Even a small degree of head elevation, used in managing pulmonary congestion, may increase gravitational ischemia in the posterior fossa and brainstem. In this paper, we suggest a new and important research avenue for intervening in cardiac arrhythmias and preventing their occurrence through the non-invasive use of head-tilting and other head repositioning maneuvers. This could potentially help many geriatric patients with heart failure, who have decreased mobility in bed, and who tend to stay in one position longer, thereby increasing gravitational ischemia in the brain.
brain; gravity; heart failure; ischemia
Settore MED/08 - Anatomia Patologica
Centro di Ricerca "Lino Rossi" per lo studio e la prevenzione della morte perinatale del feto a termine e neonatale e della sindrome della morte improvvisa del lattante SIDS
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/933066
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