Allograft vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a leading urological complication of kidney transplantation. Despite the relatively high incidence, there is a lack of consensus regarding VUR risk factors, impact on renal function, and management. Dialysis vintage and atrophic bladder have been recognized as the most relevant recipient-related determinants of post-transplant VUR, whilst possible relationships with sex, age, and ureteral implantation technique remain debated. Clinical manifestations vary from an asymptomatic condition to persistent or recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Voiding cystourethrography is widely accepted as the gold standard diagnostic modality, and the reflux is generally graded following the International Reflux Study Committee Scale. Long-term transplant outcomes of recipients with asymptomatic grade I-III VUR are yet to be clarified. On the contrary, available data suggest that symptomatic grade IV-V VUR may lead to progressive allograft dysfunction and premature transplant loss. Therapeutic options include watchful waiting, prolonged antibiotic suppression, sub-mucosal endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer at the site of the ureteral anastomosis, and surgery. Indication for specific treatments depends on recipient’s characteristics (age, frailty, compliance with antibiotics), renal function (serum creatinine concentration < 2.5 vs. ≥ 2.5 mg/dL), severity of UTIs, and VUR grading (grade I-III vs. IV-V). Current evidence supporting surgical referral over more conservative strategies is weak. Therefore, a tailored approach should be preferred. Properly designed studies, with adequate sample size and follow-up, are warranted to clarify those unresolved issues.

Allograft Vesicoureteral Reflux after Kidney Transplantation / A. Brescacin, S. Iesari, S. Guzzo, C.M. Alfieri, R. Darisi, M. Perego, C. Puliatti, M. Ferraresso, E. Favi. - In: MEDICINA. - ISSN 1010-660X. - 58:1(2022 Jan), pp. 81.1-81.14. [10.3390/medicina58010081]

Allograft Vesicoureteral Reflux after Kidney Transplantation

A. Brescacin
Co-primo
;
S. Guzzo;C.M. Alfieri;R. Darisi;M. Perego;M. Ferraresso
Penultimo
;
E. Favi
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Allograft vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a leading urological complication of kidney transplantation. Despite the relatively high incidence, there is a lack of consensus regarding VUR risk factors, impact on renal function, and management. Dialysis vintage and atrophic bladder have been recognized as the most relevant recipient-related determinants of post-transplant VUR, whilst possible relationships with sex, age, and ureteral implantation technique remain debated. Clinical manifestations vary from an asymptomatic condition to persistent or recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Voiding cystourethrography is widely accepted as the gold standard diagnostic modality, and the reflux is generally graded following the International Reflux Study Committee Scale. Long-term transplant outcomes of recipients with asymptomatic grade I-III VUR are yet to be clarified. On the contrary, available data suggest that symptomatic grade IV-V VUR may lead to progressive allograft dysfunction and premature transplant loss. Therapeutic options include watchful waiting, prolonged antibiotic suppression, sub-mucosal endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer at the site of the ureteral anastomosis, and surgery. Indication for specific treatments depends on recipient’s characteristics (age, frailty, compliance with antibiotics), renal function (serum creatinine concentration < 2.5 vs. ≥ 2.5 mg/dL), severity of UTIs, and VUR grading (grade I-III vs. IV-V). Current evidence supporting surgical referral over more conservative strategies is weak. Therefore, a tailored approach should be preferred. Properly designed studies, with adequate sample size and follow-up, are warranted to clarify those unresolved issues.
Allograft survival; Kidney transplant; Outcomes; Systematic review; Urinary tract infection; Vesicoureteral reflux; Allografts; Humans; Hyaluronic Acid; Renal Dialysis; Kidney Transplantation; Vesico-Ureteral Reflux;
Settore MED/18 - Chirurgia Generale
gen-2022
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/928854
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