This paper reviews our present knowledge on the contribution of ceramide (Cer), sphingomyelin (SM), dihydroceramide (DhCer) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in obesity and related co-morbidities. Specifically, in this paper, we address the role of acyl chain composition in bodily fluids for monitoring obesity in males and females, in aging persons and in situations of environmental hypoxia adaptation. After a brief introduction on sphingolipid synthesis and compartmentalization, the node of detection methods has been critically revised as the node of the use of animal models. The latter do not recapitulate the human condition, making it difficult to compare levels of sphingolipids found in animal tissues and human bodily fluids, and thus, to find definitive conclusions. In human subjects, the search for putative biomarkers has to be performed on easily accessible material, such as serum. The serum “sphingolipidome” profile indicates that attention should be focused on specific acyl chains associated with obesity, per se, since total Cer and SM levels coupled with dyslipidemia and vitamin D deficiency can be confounding factors. Furthermore, exposure to hypoxia indicates a relationship between dyslipidemia, obesity, oxygen level and aerobic/anaerobic metabolism, thus, opening new research avenues in the role of sphingolipids.

Sphingolipids in obesity and correlated comorbidities: The contribution of gender, age and environment / E. Torretta, P. Barbacini, N.M. Al-Daghri, C. Gelfi. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 20:23(2019 Nov 24), pp. 5901.1-5901.32. [10.3390/ijms20235901]

Sphingolipids in obesity and correlated comorbidities: The contribution of gender, age and environment

E. Torretta
Primo
;
P. Barbacini
Secondo
;
C. Gelfi
Ultimo
2019

Abstract

This paper reviews our present knowledge on the contribution of ceramide (Cer), sphingomyelin (SM), dihydroceramide (DhCer) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in obesity and related co-morbidities. Specifically, in this paper, we address the role of acyl chain composition in bodily fluids for monitoring obesity in males and females, in aging persons and in situations of environmental hypoxia adaptation. After a brief introduction on sphingolipid synthesis and compartmentalization, the node of detection methods has been critically revised as the node of the use of animal models. The latter do not recapitulate the human condition, making it difficult to compare levels of sphingolipids found in animal tissues and human bodily fluids, and thus, to find definitive conclusions. In human subjects, the search for putative biomarkers has to be performed on easily accessible material, such as serum. The serum “sphingolipidome” profile indicates that attention should be focused on specific acyl chains associated with obesity, per se, since total Cer and SM levels coupled with dyslipidemia and vitamin D deficiency can be confounding factors. Furthermore, exposure to hypoxia indicates a relationship between dyslipidemia, obesity, oxygen level and aerobic/anaerobic metabolism, thus, opening new research avenues in the role of sphingolipids.
Aging; Cardiovascular disease; Gender; Hypoxia; Obesity; Osteoarthritis; Sphingolipid; Type 2 diabetes; Age Factors; Animals; Ceramides; Humans; Obesity; Sex Factors; Sphingolipids; Comorbidity
Settore BIO/12 - Biochimica Clinica e Biologia Molecolare Clinica
24-nov-2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/921528
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