Although SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in China and neighbouring countries, the pandemic quickly spread around the globe. This paper explores national drivers of the pandemic and the radically different epidemiology and response in the West and in the East. We studied coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mortality until 31st December 2020, using an ecological study design, considering baseline characteristics and responses that might account for the uneven impact of the pandemic. A multivariable regression model was developed to explore key determinants. Key variables in the West were contrasted with those in the East, and speed of response was examined. Worldwide, 2.24 million COVID-19 deaths were documented in 2020. Western countries reported a median mortality 114 times that of the East (684 vs. 6.0 per million). Significant correlates of mortality in countries with at least 1 million population were median age, obesity prevalence, and democracy index; political stability and experience of SARS in 2002-2003 were protective; health system variables and income inequality were not associated. Outputs of the model were consistent when adjusted for stringency index, timeliness of stay-at-home requirements, and geographical autocorrelation. The West experiences a much higher COVID-19 mortality than the East. Despite structural advantages in the West, delays in national responses early on resulted in a loss of control over the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Although the early success of the East was sustained in the second half of 2020, the region remains extremely vulnerable to COVID-19 until enough people are immunized.

Global ecological analysis of COVID-19 mortality and comparison between “the East” and “the West” / A. Pablos-Méndez, S. Villa, M. Cristina Monti, M.C.B. Raviglione, H. Brown Tabish, T. Grant Evans, R. Alan Cash. - In: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. - ISSN 2045-2322. - 12:1(2022 Mar 28), pp. 572.1-572.10. [10.1038/s41598-022-09286-7]

Global ecological analysis of COVID-19 mortality and comparison between “the East” and “the West”

S. Villa
Secondo
;
M.C.B. Raviglione;
2022

Abstract

Although SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in China and neighbouring countries, the pandemic quickly spread around the globe. This paper explores national drivers of the pandemic and the radically different epidemiology and response in the West and in the East. We studied coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mortality until 31st December 2020, using an ecological study design, considering baseline characteristics and responses that might account for the uneven impact of the pandemic. A multivariable regression model was developed to explore key determinants. Key variables in the West were contrasted with those in the East, and speed of response was examined. Worldwide, 2.24 million COVID-19 deaths were documented in 2020. Western countries reported a median mortality 114 times that of the East (684 vs. 6.0 per million). Significant correlates of mortality in countries with at least 1 million population were median age, obesity prevalence, and democracy index; political stability and experience of SARS in 2002-2003 were protective; health system variables and income inequality were not associated. Outputs of the model were consistent when adjusted for stringency index, timeliness of stay-at-home requirements, and geographical autocorrelation. The West experiences a much higher COVID-19 mortality than the East. Despite structural advantages in the West, delays in national responses early on resulted in a loss of control over the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Although the early success of the East was sustained in the second half of 2020, the region remains extremely vulnerable to COVID-19 until enough people are immunized.
Settore MED/42 - Igiene Generale e Applicata
28-mar-2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/921355
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