Background Coupling transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) allows recording the EEG response to a direct, non-invasive cortical perturbation. However, obtaining a genuine TMS-evoked EEG potential requires controlling for several confounds, among which a main source is represented by the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) associated to the TMS discharge noise (TMS click). This contaminating factor can be in principle prevented by playing a masking noise through earphones. New method Here we release TMS Adaptable Auditory Control (TAAC), a highly flexible, open-source, Matlab®-based interface that generates in real-time customized masking noises. TAAC creates noises starting from the stimulator-specific TMS click and tailors them to fit the individual, subject-specific click perception by mixing and manipulating the standard noises in both time and frequency domains. Results We showed that TAAC allows us to provide standard as well as customized noises able to effectively and safely mask the TMS click. Comparison with existing methods Here, we showcased two customized noises by comparing them to two standard noises previously used in the TMS literature (i.e., a white noise and a noise generated from the stimulator-specific TMS click only). For each, we quantified the Sound Pressure Level (SPL; measured by a Head and Torso Simulator - HATS) required to mask the TMS click in a population of 20 healthy subjects. Both customized noises were effective at safe (according to OSHA and NIOSH safety guidelines), lower SPLs with respect to standard noises. Conclusions At odds with previous methods, TAAC allows creating effective and safe masking noises specifically tailored on each TMS device and subject. The combination of TAAC with tools for the real-time visualization of TEPs can help control the influence of auditory confounds also in non-compliant patients. Finally, TAAC is a highly flexible and open-source tool, so it can be further extended to meet different experimental requirements.

TAAC – TMS Adaptable Auditory Control: a universal tool to mask TMS click / S. Russo, S. Sarasso, G. Emma Puglisi, D. Dal Palu, A. Pigorini, S. Casarotto, S. D'Ambrosio, A. Astolfi, M. Massimini, M.C.E. Rosanova, M. Fecchio. - (2021 Sep 20). [10.1101/2021.09.08.459439]

TAAC – TMS Adaptable Auditory Control: a universal tool to mask TMS click

S. Russo
Primo
;
S. Sarasso
Secondo
;
A. Pigorini;S. Casarotto;S. D'Ambrosio;M. Massimini;M.C.E. Rosanova
Penultimo
;
M. Fecchio
Ultimo
2021-09-20

Abstract

Background Coupling transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) allows recording the EEG response to a direct, non-invasive cortical perturbation. However, obtaining a genuine TMS-evoked EEG potential requires controlling for several confounds, among which a main source is represented by the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) associated to the TMS discharge noise (TMS click). This contaminating factor can be in principle prevented by playing a masking noise through earphones. New method Here we release TMS Adaptable Auditory Control (TAAC), a highly flexible, open-source, Matlab®-based interface that generates in real-time customized masking noises. TAAC creates noises starting from the stimulator-specific TMS click and tailors them to fit the individual, subject-specific click perception by mixing and manipulating the standard noises in both time and frequency domains. Results We showed that TAAC allows us to provide standard as well as customized noises able to effectively and safely mask the TMS click. Comparison with existing methods Here, we showcased two customized noises by comparing them to two standard noises previously used in the TMS literature (i.e., a white noise and a noise generated from the stimulator-specific TMS click only). For each, we quantified the Sound Pressure Level (SPL; measured by a Head and Torso Simulator - HATS) required to mask the TMS click in a population of 20 healthy subjects. Both customized noises were effective at safe (according to OSHA and NIOSH safety guidelines), lower SPLs with respect to standard noises. Conclusions At odds with previous methods, TAAC allows creating effective and safe masking noises specifically tailored on each TMS device and subject. The combination of TAAC with tools for the real-time visualization of TEPs can help control the influence of auditory confounds also in non-compliant patients. Finally, TAAC is a highly flexible and open-source tool, so it can be further extended to meet different experimental requirements.
Settore BIO/09 - Fisiologia
Settore ING-INF/06 - Bioingegneria Elettronica e Informatica
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.09.08.459439v2.full
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/902518
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