In compliance to animal welfare 3Rs principle there is a great demand for refined tests alternative to classical mammal teratogenicity tests. We propose a refined alternative amphibian method (R-FETAX) to evaluate chemical induced embryotoxicity. The human foetal valproate spectrum disorder (FVSD) characteristics are morphological defects (including cranio-facial, neural tube defects) and behavioural alterations due to valproate (VPA) exposure in pregnancy. Vertebrate assays to evaluate FVSD include classical and alternative mammal (implying adult sacrifice), and non-mammal developmental models (zebrafish, amphibians, chick). Among these latter only zebrafish assays report in the same test both morphological and behavioural examinations. Compared to zebrafish, the amphibian Xenopus laevis excels having a more comparable organ development and morphology to mammalian systems. We used X. laevis embryos exposed during developmental specific windows to VPA therapeutic concentrations. Different VPA effects were observed depending on the exposure window: concentration-related embryo-lethal and teratogenic effects (neural tube, facial, tail defects) were observed in groups exposed at the organogenetic phylotypic stages. Neurobehavioral deficits were described using a functional swimming test at the highest VPA concentration exposure during the phylotypic stages and at any concentration during neurocognitive competent stages. Malformations were compared to those obtained in a mammalian assay (the rat post-implantation whole embryo culture method, WEC), that we used in the past to evaluate VPA teratogenicity. R-FETAX and WEC data were modelled and their relative sensitivity was calculated. We suggest the amphibian R-FETAX as a refined windowed alternative test for the evaluation of chemicals inducing both morphological and behavioural anomalies, including VPA.

Modified Xenopus laevis approach (R-FETAX) as an alternative test for the evaluation of foetal valproate spectrum disorder / M. Battistoni, R. Bacchetta, F. Di Renzo, F. Metruccio, A. Moretto, E. Menegola. - In: REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY. - ISSN 0890-6238. - 107(2022 Jan), pp. 140-149. [10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.12.005]

Modified Xenopus laevis approach (R-FETAX) as an alternative test for the evaluation of foetal valproate spectrum disorder

Battistoni M.;Bacchetta R.;Di Renzo F.;Metruccio F.;Moretto A.;Menegola E.
2022-01

Abstract

In compliance to animal welfare 3Rs principle there is a great demand for refined tests alternative to classical mammal teratogenicity tests. We propose a refined alternative amphibian method (R-FETAX) to evaluate chemical induced embryotoxicity. The human foetal valproate spectrum disorder (FVSD) characteristics are morphological defects (including cranio-facial, neural tube defects) and behavioural alterations due to valproate (VPA) exposure in pregnancy. Vertebrate assays to evaluate FVSD include classical and alternative mammal (implying adult sacrifice), and non-mammal developmental models (zebrafish, amphibians, chick). Among these latter only zebrafish assays report in the same test both morphological and behavioural examinations. Compared to zebrafish, the amphibian Xenopus laevis excels having a more comparable organ development and morphology to mammalian systems. We used X. laevis embryos exposed during developmental specific windows to VPA therapeutic concentrations. Different VPA effects were observed depending on the exposure window: concentration-related embryo-lethal and teratogenic effects (neural tube, facial, tail defects) were observed in groups exposed at the organogenetic phylotypic stages. Neurobehavioral deficits were described using a functional swimming test at the highest VPA concentration exposure during the phylotypic stages and at any concentration during neurocognitive competent stages. Malformations were compared to those obtained in a mammalian assay (the rat post-implantation whole embryo culture method, WEC), that we used in the past to evaluate VPA teratogenicity. R-FETAX and WEC data were modelled and their relative sensitivity was calculated. We suggest the amphibian R-FETAX as a refined windowed alternative test for the evaluation of chemicals inducing both morphological and behavioural anomalies, including VPA.
3R; FVSD; R-FETAX; VPA; WEC;
Settore BIO/06 - Anatomia Comparata e Citologia
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/902025
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