Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and acute liver failure. LT success can be hampered by several short-term and long-term complications. Among them, bacterial infections, especially those due to multidrug-resistant germs, are particularly frequent, with a prevalence between 19 and 33% in the first 100 days after transplantation. In the last decades, a number of studies have highlighted how the gut microbiota (GM) is involved in several essential functions to ensure intestinal homeostasis, becoming one of the most important virtual metabolic organs. The GM works through different axes with other organs, and the gut-liver axis is among the most relevant and investigated ones. Any alteration or disruption of the GM is defined as dysbiosis. Peculiar phenotypes of GM dysbiosis have been associated with several liver conditions and complications, such as chronic hepatitis, fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, there is growing evidence of the crucial role of the GM in shaping the immune response, both locally and systemically, against pathogens. This paves the way to the manipulation of the GM as a therapeutic instrument to modulate infectious risk and outcome. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system in liver transplant recipients and the role of the former in infections.

The Interplay between Gut Microbiota and the Immune System in Liver Transplant Recipients and Its Role in Infections / G. Ancona, L. Alagna, A. Lombardi, E. Palomba, V. Castelli, G. Renisi, D. Dondossola, M. Iavarone, A. Muscatello, A. Gori, A. Bandera. - In: INFECTION AND IMMUNITY. - ISSN 0019-9567. - 89:11(2021 Nov), p. e00376-21.1. [10.1128/IAI.00376-21]

The Interplay between Gut Microbiota and the Immune System in Liver Transplant Recipients and Its Role in Infections

Ancona G.;Lombardi A.;Palomba E.;Castelli V.;Dondossola D.;Gori A.;Bandera A.
2021-11

Abstract

Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma, and acute liver failure. LT success can be hampered by several short-term and long-term complications. Among them, bacterial infections, especially those due to multidrug-resistant germs, are particularly frequent, with a prevalence between 19 and 33% in the first 100 days after transplantation. In the last decades, a number of studies have highlighted how the gut microbiota (GM) is involved in several essential functions to ensure intestinal homeostasis, becoming one of the most important virtual metabolic organs. The GM works through different axes with other organs, and the gut-liver axis is among the most relevant and investigated ones. Any alteration or disruption of the GM is defined as dysbiosis. Peculiar phenotypes of GM dysbiosis have been associated with several liver conditions and complications, such as chronic hepatitis, fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, there is growing evidence of the crucial role of the GM in shaping the immune response, both locally and systemically, against pathogens. This paves the way to the manipulation of the GM as a therapeutic instrument to modulate infectious risk and outcome. In this minireview, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system in liver transplant recipients and the role of the former in infections.
Clostridium difficile infections; Fecal microbiota transplantation; Gut microbial dysbiosis; Gut microbiota; Human microbiome; Immune dysfunction; Liver failure; Liver immunology; Liver transplantation; Multidrug resistance; Bacterial Infections; Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial; Dysbiosis; Fecal Microbiota Transplantation; Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Host Microbial Interactions; Humans; Immune System; Liver Cirrhosis; Liver Transplantation; Severity of Illness Index
Settore MED/17 - Malattie Infettive
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/899755
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