Nutrition in early life is a crucial element to provide all essential substrates for growth. Although this statement may appear obvious, several studies have shown how the intake of micro and macronutrients in toddlers differs a lot from the recommendations of scientific societies. Protein intake often exceeds the recommended amount, while the intake of iron and zinc is frequently insufficient, as well as Vitamin D. Nutritional errors in the first years of life can negatively impact the health of the child in the long term. To date, no clear evidence on which milk is suggested during the second year of life is yet to be established. In this study, we compare the nutrient profiles of cow’s milk and specific formulas as well as nutritional risks in toddlers linked to growth and childhood obesity development. The purpose of this review is to resume the latest clinical studies on toddlers fed with cow’s milk or young children formula (YCF), and the potential risks or benefits in the short and long term.

Which milk during the second year of life : A personalized choice for a healthy future? / E. Verduci, E. Di Profio, A. Corsello, L. Scatigno, G. Fiore, A. Bosetti, G.V. Zuccotti. - In: NUTRIENTS. - ISSN 2072-6643. - 13:10(2021), pp. 3412.1-3412.16. [10.3390/nu13103412]

Which milk during the second year of life : A personalized choice for a healthy future?

E. Verduci
Primo
;
E. Di Profio;A. Corsello;L. Scatigno;G. Fiore;G.V. Zuccotti
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Nutrition in early life is a crucial element to provide all essential substrates for growth. Although this statement may appear obvious, several studies have shown how the intake of micro and macronutrients in toddlers differs a lot from the recommendations of scientific societies. Protein intake often exceeds the recommended amount, while the intake of iron and zinc is frequently insufficient, as well as Vitamin D. Nutritional errors in the first years of life can negatively impact the health of the child in the long term. To date, no clear evidence on which milk is suggested during the second year of life is yet to be established. In this study, we compare the nutrient profiles of cow’s milk and specific formulas as well as nutritional risks in toddlers linked to growth and childhood obesity development. The purpose of this review is to resume the latest clinical studies on toddlers fed with cow’s milk or young children formula (YCF), and the potential risks or benefits in the short and long term.
Anemia; Growing‐up milk; Iron deficiency; Milk formula; Nutrients intakes; Nutritional risks; Protein intake; Second year of life; Toddler; Vitamin d deficiency; Animals; Child, Preschool; Energy Intake; Female; Humans; Infant; Male; Micronutrients; Nutritional Requirements; Nutritive Value; Pediatric Obesity; Diet, Healthy; Infant Formula; Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Milk
Settore AGR/18 - Nutrizione e Alimentazione Animale
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/2434/893513
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