Male osteoporosis is a still largely underdiagnosed pathological condition. As a conse-quence, bone fragility in men remains undertreated mainly due to the low screening frequency and to controversies in the bone mineral density (BMD) testing standards. Up to the 40% of overall osteo-porotic fractures affect men, in spite of the fact that women have a significant higher prevalence of osteoporosis. In addition, in males, hip fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality as compared to women. Importantly, male fractures occur about 10 years later in life than women, and, therefore, due to the advanced age, men may have more comorbidities and, consequently, their mortality is about twice the rate in women. Gender differences, which begin during puberty, lead to wider bones in males as compared with females. In men, follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, estrogens, and sex hormone-binding levels, together with genetic factors, interact in determining the peak of bone mass, BMD maintenance, and lifetime decrease. As compared with women, men are more frequently affected by secondary osteoporosis. Therefore, in all osteoporotic men, a complete clinical history should be collected and a careful physical examination should be done, in order to find clues of a possible underlying diseases and, ultimately, to guide laboratory testing. Currently, the pharmacological therapy of male osteoporosis includes aminobisphosphonates, denosumab, and teriparatide. Hypogonadal patients may be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Given that the fractures related to mortality are higher in men than in women, treating male subjects with osteoporosis is of the utmost importance in clinical practice, as it may impact on mortality even more than in women.

Management of osteoporosis in men : a narrative review / F. Vescini, I. Chiodini, A. Falchetti, A. Palermo, A. Stefano Salcuni, S. Bonadonna, V. De Geronimo, R. Cesareo, L. Giovanelli, M. Brigo, F. Bertoldo, A. Scillitani, L. Gennari. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 22:24(2021 Dec 20), pp. 13640.1-13640.21. [10.3390/ijms222413640]

Management of osteoporosis in men : a narrative review

I. Chiodini
Secondo
;
L. Giovanelli;
2021

Abstract

Male osteoporosis is a still largely underdiagnosed pathological condition. As a conse-quence, bone fragility in men remains undertreated mainly due to the low screening frequency and to controversies in the bone mineral density (BMD) testing standards. Up to the 40% of overall osteo-porotic fractures affect men, in spite of the fact that women have a significant higher prevalence of osteoporosis. In addition, in males, hip fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality as compared to women. Importantly, male fractures occur about 10 years later in life than women, and, therefore, due to the advanced age, men may have more comorbidities and, consequently, their mortality is about twice the rate in women. Gender differences, which begin during puberty, lead to wider bones in males as compared with females. In men, follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, estrogens, and sex hormone-binding levels, together with genetic factors, interact in determining the peak of bone mass, BMD maintenance, and lifetime decrease. As compared with women, men are more frequently affected by secondary osteoporosis. Therefore, in all osteoporotic men, a complete clinical history should be collected and a careful physical examination should be done, in order to find clues of a possible underlying diseases and, ultimately, to guide laboratory testing. Currently, the pharmacological therapy of male osteoporosis includes aminobisphosphonates, denosumab, and teriparatide. Hypogonadal patients may be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Given that the fractures related to mortality are higher in men than in women, treating male subjects with osteoporosis is of the utmost importance in clinical practice, as it may impact on mortality even more than in women.
osteoporosis; BMD; male; bone fragility; fractures; DXA
Settore MED/13 - Endocrinologia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/891171
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