Background: The effects of immunomodulators in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia are still unknown. We investigated the cellular inflammatory and molecular changes in response to standard-of-care + pidotimod (PDT) and explored the possible association with blood biomarkers of disease severity. Methods: Clinical characteristics and outcomes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), plasma and cell supernatant chemokines, and gene expression patterns after SARS-CoV-2 and influenza (FLU) virus in vitro stimulation were assessed in 16 patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, treated with standard of care and PDT 800 mg twice daily (PDT group), and measured at admission, 7 (T1), and 12 (T2) days after therapy initiation. Clinical outcomes and NLR were compared with age-matched historical controls not exposed to PDT. Results: Hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, and intubation rate did not differ between groups. At T1, NLR was 2.9 (1.7–4.6) in the PDT group and 5.5 (3.4–7.1) in controls (p = 0.037). In the PDT group, eotaxin and IL-4 plasma concentrations progressively increased (p < 0.05). Upon SARS-CoV-2 and FLU-specific stimulation, IFN-γ was upregulated (p < 0.05), while at genetic transcription level, Pathogen Recognition Receptors (TRLs) were upregulated, especially in FLU-stimulated conditions. Conclusions: Immunomodulation exerted by PDT and systemic corticosteroids may foster a restoration in the innate response to the viral infection. These results should be confirmed in larger RCTs.

Anti-inflammatory effects of immunostimulation in patients with covid-19 pneumonia / P. Santus, D. Radovanovic, M. Garziano, S. Pini, G. Croce, G. Fuccia, D. Spitaleri, M. Biasin, M. Clerici, D. Trabattoni. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 10:24(2021 Dec 09), pp. 5765.1-5765.13. [10.3390/jcm10245765]

Anti-inflammatory effects of immunostimulation in patients with covid-19 pneumonia

P. Santus
Primo
;
D. Radovanovic
Secondo
;
M. Garziano;S. Pini;G. Fuccia;D. Spitaleri;M. Biasin;M. Clerici
Penultimo
;
D. Trabattoni
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Background: The effects of immunomodulators in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia are still unknown. We investigated the cellular inflammatory and molecular changes in response to standard-of-care + pidotimod (PDT) and explored the possible association with blood biomarkers of disease severity. Methods: Clinical characteristics and outcomes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), plasma and cell supernatant chemokines, and gene expression patterns after SARS-CoV-2 and influenza (FLU) virus in vitro stimulation were assessed in 16 patients with mild-moderate COVID-19 pneumonia, treated with standard of care and PDT 800 mg twice daily (PDT group), and measured at admission, 7 (T1), and 12 (T2) days after therapy initiation. Clinical outcomes and NLR were compared with age-matched historical controls not exposed to PDT. Results: Hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, and intubation rate did not differ between groups. At T1, NLR was 2.9 (1.7–4.6) in the PDT group and 5.5 (3.4–7.1) in controls (p = 0.037). In the PDT group, eotaxin and IL-4 plasma concentrations progressively increased (p < 0.05). Upon SARS-CoV-2 and FLU-specific stimulation, IFN-γ was upregulated (p < 0.05), while at genetic transcription level, Pathogen Recognition Receptors (TRLs) were upregulated, especially in FLU-stimulated conditions. Conclusions: Immunomodulation exerted by PDT and systemic corticosteroids may foster a restoration in the innate response to the viral infection. These results should be confirmed in larger RCTs.
COVID-19; Cytokine; Immune response; Immunomodulation; Pidotimod; Respiratory failure; Toll like receptor; Viral pneumonia;
Settore MED/04 - Patologia Generale
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/889947
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