Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in stable patients with cirrhosis can easily be overlooked. We report on the presenting symptoms, disease progression, and outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) in children with HPS. Twenty patients were diagnosed with HPS between 1996 and 2016. The etiologies were as follows: biliary atresia (n = 9); alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (n = 2); cryptogenic liver disease (n = 3); and others (n = 6). HPS presentations were as follows; dyspnea (n = 17) and pneumonia (n = 3). For diagnostic confirmation, the following techniques were used: technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan (n = 13) or contrast echocardiogram (n = 7). There were 16 patients listed for LT, with a median age at HPS diagnosis of 10 years and an average wait from listing to LT of 9 weeks. A marked rise in hemoglobin (Hb; median, 125-143.5 g/L) and modest decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ; median 91% to 88% room air) were evident over this time. Patients’ need for assisted ventilation (1 day), pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay (3 days), and total hospital stay (20 days) were similar to our general LT recipients—the key difference in the postoperative period was the duration of supplementary O 2 requirement. Hb of ≥130 g/L on the day of LT correlated with a longer PICU stay (P value = 0.02), duration of supplementary O 2 (P value = 0.005), and the need for the latter beyond 7 days after LT (P value = 0.01). Fifteen patients had resolution of their HPS after LT. The 5-, 10-, and 20-year survival rates were unchanged at 87.5%. None had a recurrence of HPS. In conclusion, HPS is a life-threatening complication of cirrhosis which usually develops insidiously. This combined with the often-stable nature of the liver disease leads to delays in diagnosis and listing for LT. Progressive polycythemia extends the need for supplementary O 2 and PICU stay. We advocate screening for HPS with a combination of SpO 2 and Hb monitoring to facilitate earlier recognition, timely LT, and shortened recovery periods.

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome in Children : A 20-Year Review of Presenting Symptoms, Clinical Progression, and Transplant Outcome / S. Warner, P.J. McKiernan, J. Hartley, E. Ong, I.D. van Mourik, G. Gupte, M. Abdel-Hady, P. Muiesan, T. Perera, D. Mirza, K. Sharif, D.A. Kelly, S.V. Beath. - In: LIVER TRANSPLANTATION. - ISSN 1527-6465. - 24:9(2018), pp. 1271-1279. [10.1002/lt.25296]

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome in Children : A 20-Year Review of Presenting Symptoms, Clinical Progression, and Transplant Outcome

P. Muiesan;
2018

Abstract

Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in stable patients with cirrhosis can easily be overlooked. We report on the presenting symptoms, disease progression, and outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) in children with HPS. Twenty patients were diagnosed with HPS between 1996 and 2016. The etiologies were as follows: biliary atresia (n = 9); alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (n = 2); cryptogenic liver disease (n = 3); and others (n = 6). HPS presentations were as follows; dyspnea (n = 17) and pneumonia (n = 3). For diagnostic confirmation, the following techniques were used: technetium-99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin lung perfusion scan (n = 13) or contrast echocardiogram (n = 7). There were 16 patients listed for LT, with a median age at HPS diagnosis of 10 years and an average wait from listing to LT of 9 weeks. A marked rise in hemoglobin (Hb; median, 125-143.5 g/L) and modest decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ; median 91% to 88% room air) were evident over this time. Patients’ need for assisted ventilation (1 day), pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay (3 days), and total hospital stay (20 days) were similar to our general LT recipients—the key difference in the postoperative period was the duration of supplementary O 2 requirement. Hb of ≥130 g/L on the day of LT correlated with a longer PICU stay (P value = 0.02), duration of supplementary O 2 (P value = 0.005), and the need for the latter beyond 7 days after LT (P value = 0.01). Fifteen patients had resolution of their HPS after LT. The 5-, 10-, and 20-year survival rates were unchanged at 87.5%. None had a recurrence of HPS. In conclusion, HPS is a life-threatening complication of cirrhosis which usually develops insidiously. This combined with the often-stable nature of the liver disease leads to delays in diagnosis and listing for LT. Progressive polycythemia extends the need for supplementary O 2 and PICU stay. We advocate screening for HPS with a combination of SpO 2 and Hb monitoring to facilitate earlier recognition, timely LT, and shortened recovery periods.
Adolescent; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Databases, Factual; Disease Progression; Early Diagnosis; Female; Hepatopulmonary Syndrome; Humans; Infant; Length of Stay; Liver Cirrhosis; Male; Oxygen Inhalation Therapy; Postoperative Complications; Predictive Value of Tests; Recovery of Function; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome; Waiting Lists; Liver Transplantation
Settore MED/18 - Chirurgia Generale
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/885191
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