The present study compared changes in body composition during the COVID-19-associated lockdown with the same period of the following season in elite soccer players. Fifteen elite male soccer players (30.5 ± 3.6 years.) underwent a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) before (end of February) and after (end of May) the lockdown, which occurred during the 2019/2020 season, and at the same period during the following competitive season in 2020/2021, when restrictions were lifted. Fat and muscle mass were estimated using predictive equations, while phase angle (PhA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) patterns were directly measured. After lockdown, fat mass remained unchanged (p > 0.05), while muscle mass (95%CI = −1.12/−0.64; ES = −2.04) and PhA (95%CI = 0.51/−0.24, ES = −1.56) decreased. A rightward displacement of the BIVA vector was also found (p < 0.001, ES = 1.50). After the same period during the regular season, FM% and muscle mass did not change (p > 0.05), while the PhA increased (95%CI = 0.01/0.22; ES = 0.63). A leftward vector displacement (p < 0.001, ES = 1.05) was also observed. The changes in muscle mass correlated with changes in PhA (“lockdown” season 2019/2020: ß = −1.128, p = 0.011; “regular” season 2020/21: ß = 1.963, p = 0.011). In conclusion, coaches and strength conditioners should monitor muscle mass in soccer players during detraining periods as this parameter appears to be mainly affected by changes in training plans. In 2020, the first Italian soccer league (Serie A) was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, a detraining process was triggered in soccer players, leading coaches and sports scientists to implement alternative training strategies to prevent a remodeling in body composition. This study tested the hypothesis that male elite soccer players, when confined to their home during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, will display unfavorable trends in bioelectrical and body composition parameters. The results of the present study showed that reduction in phase angle and muscle mass occurred in soccer players during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic lockdown. Recognizing these adverse effects of a detraining period is critical in avoiding adverse effects on body composition in soccer players. In addition, the bioelectrical phase angle has been identified as a valid predictor of muscle mass changes during the competitive soccer season. Considerably, the phase angle represents a parameter that can be measured directly through bioelectrical impedance analysis, and it is independent of predictive equations such as those that quantify muscle mass.

Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Body Composition and Bioelectrical Phase Angle in Serie A Soccer Players: A Comparison of Two Consecutive Seasons / F. Campa, T. Bongiovanni, A. Trecroci, A. Rossi, G. Greco, G. Pasta, G. Coratella. - In: BIOLOGY. - ISSN 2079-7737. - 10:11(2021 Nov 13), pp. 1175.1-1175.10. [10.3390/biology10111175]

Effects of the COVID-19 Lockdown on Body Composition and Bioelectrical Phase Angle in Serie A Soccer Players: A Comparison of Two Consecutive Seasons

A. Trecroci;A. Rossi;G. Coratella
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

The present study compared changes in body composition during the COVID-19-associated lockdown with the same period of the following season in elite soccer players. Fifteen elite male soccer players (30.5 ± 3.6 years.) underwent a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) before (end of February) and after (end of May) the lockdown, which occurred during the 2019/2020 season, and at the same period during the following competitive season in 2020/2021, when restrictions were lifted. Fat and muscle mass were estimated using predictive equations, while phase angle (PhA) and bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) patterns were directly measured. After lockdown, fat mass remained unchanged (p > 0.05), while muscle mass (95%CI = −1.12/−0.64; ES = −2.04) and PhA (95%CI = 0.51/−0.24, ES = −1.56) decreased. A rightward displacement of the BIVA vector was also found (p < 0.001, ES = 1.50). After the same period during the regular season, FM% and muscle mass did not change (p > 0.05), while the PhA increased (95%CI = 0.01/0.22; ES = 0.63). A leftward vector displacement (p < 0.001, ES = 1.05) was also observed. The changes in muscle mass correlated with changes in PhA (“lockdown” season 2019/2020: ß = −1.128, p = 0.011; “regular” season 2020/21: ß = 1.963, p = 0.011). In conclusion, coaches and strength conditioners should monitor muscle mass in soccer players during detraining periods as this parameter appears to be mainly affected by changes in training plans. In 2020, the first Italian soccer league (Serie A) was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, a detraining process was triggered in soccer players, leading coaches and sports scientists to implement alternative training strategies to prevent a remodeling in body composition. This study tested the hypothesis that male elite soccer players, when confined to their home during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, will display unfavorable trends in bioelectrical and body composition parameters. The results of the present study showed that reduction in phase angle and muscle mass occurred in soccer players during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic lockdown. Recognizing these adverse effects of a detraining period is critical in avoiding adverse effects on body composition in soccer players. In addition, the bioelectrical phase angle has been identified as a valid predictor of muscle mass changes during the competitive soccer season. Considerably, the phase angle represents a parameter that can be measured directly through bioelectrical impedance analysis, and it is independent of predictive equations such as those that quantify muscle mass.
BIA; BIVA; coronavirus disease; detraining; fat mass; football; muscle mass; team sports;
Settore M-EDF/02 - Metodi e Didattiche delle Attivita' Sportive
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/884086
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