Human body is colonized by a huge amount of microorganisms mostly located in the gastrointestinal tract. These dynamic communities, the environment and their metabolites constitute the microbiota. Growing data suggests a causal role of a dysbiotic microbiota in several pathologies, such as metabolic and neurological disorders, immunity dysregulations and cancer, especially the well-studied colorectal cancer development. However, many were preclinical studies and a complete knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms in humans is still absent. The gut microbiota can exert direct or indirect effects in different phases of colorectal cancer genesis. For example, Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes cancer through cellular proliferation and some strains of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis produce genotoxins. However, dysbiosis may also cause a proinflammatory state and the stimulation of a Th17 response with IL-17 and IL-22 secretion that have a pro-oncogenic activity, as demonstrated for Fusobacterium nucleatum. Microbiota has a crucial role in several stages of postoperative course; dysbiosis in fact seems related with surgical site infections and Enterococcus faecalis (and other collagenase-producers microbes) are suggested as a cause of anastomotic leak. Consequently, unbalanced presence of some species, together with altered immune response may also have a prognostic role. Microbiota has also a substantial role in effectiveness of chemotherapy, chemoresistance and in the related side effects. In other words, a complete knowledge of the fine pathological mechanisms of gut microbiota may provide a wide range of new diagnostic tools other than therapeutic targets in the light of tailored medicine.

Role of gut microbiota-immunity axis in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer : Focus on short and long-term outcomes / I. Bartolini, M. Risaliti, M.N. Ringressi, F. Melli, G. Nannini, A. Amedei, P. Muiesan, A. Taddei. - In: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY. - ISSN 1007-9327. - 26:20(2020), pp. 2498-2513. [10.3748/WJG.V26.I20.2498]

Role of gut microbiota-immunity axis in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer : Focus on short and long-term outcomes

P. Muiesan;
2020

Abstract

Human body is colonized by a huge amount of microorganisms mostly located in the gastrointestinal tract. These dynamic communities, the environment and their metabolites constitute the microbiota. Growing data suggests a causal role of a dysbiotic microbiota in several pathologies, such as metabolic and neurological disorders, immunity dysregulations and cancer, especially the well-studied colorectal cancer development. However, many were preclinical studies and a complete knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms in humans is still absent. The gut microbiota can exert direct or indirect effects in different phases of colorectal cancer genesis. For example, Fusobacterium nucleatum promotes cancer through cellular proliferation and some strains of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis produce genotoxins. However, dysbiosis may also cause a proinflammatory state and the stimulation of a Th17 response with IL-17 and IL-22 secretion that have a pro-oncogenic activity, as demonstrated for Fusobacterium nucleatum. Microbiota has a crucial role in several stages of postoperative course; dysbiosis in fact seems related with surgical site infections and Enterococcus faecalis (and other collagenase-producers microbes) are suggested as a cause of anastomotic leak. Consequently, unbalanced presence of some species, together with altered immune response may also have a prognostic role. Microbiota has also a substantial role in effectiveness of chemotherapy, chemoresistance and in the related side effects. In other words, a complete knowledge of the fine pathological mechanisms of gut microbiota may provide a wide range of new diagnostic tools other than therapeutic targets in the light of tailored medicine.
Chemo-resistance; Colorectal cancer; Intestinal microbiota; Therapeutic strategies; Colon; Colorectal Neoplasms; Disease-Free Survival; Dysbiosis; Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Host Microbial Interactions; Humans; Immunity, Mucosal; Intestinal Mucosa; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local; Postoperative Complications; Prognosis; Rectum; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome
Settore MED/18 - Chirurgia Generale
Article (author)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/883191
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