Mitochondria are the cytoplasmic organelles mostly known as the “electric engine” of the cells; however, they also play pivotal roles in different biological processes, such as cell growth/apoptosis, Ca2+ and redox homeostasis, and cell stemness. In cancer cells, mitochondria undergo peculiar functional and structural dynamics involved in the survival/death fate of the cell. Cancer cells use glycolysis to support macromolecular biosynthesis and energy production (“Warburg effect”); however, mitochondrial OXPHOS has been shown to be still active during carcinogenesis and even exacerbated in drug-resistant and stem cancer cells. This metabolic rewiring is associated with mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial metabolic enzymes (“oncometabolites”), alterations of ROS production and redox biology, and a fine-tuned balance between anti-/proapoptotic proteins. In cancer cells, mitochondria also experience dynamic alterations from the structural point of view undergoing coordinated cycles of biogenesis, fusion/fission and mitophagy, and physically communicating with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), through the Ca2+ flux, at the MAM (mitochondria-associated membranes) levels. This review addresses the peculiar mitochondrial metabolic and structural dynamics occurring in cancer cells and their role in coordinating the balance between cell survival and death. The role of mitochondrial dynamics as effective biomarkers of tumor progression and promising targets for anticancer strategies is also discussed.

The multifaceted roles of mitochondria at the crossroads of cell life and death in cancer / F. Fontana, P. Limonta. - In: FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY & MEDICINE. - ISSN 0891-5849. - 176:(2021), pp. 203-221. [10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.09.024]

The multifaceted roles of mitochondria at the crossroads of cell life and death in cancer

F. Fontana;P. Limonta
2021

Abstract

Mitochondria are the cytoplasmic organelles mostly known as the “electric engine” of the cells; however, they also play pivotal roles in different biological processes, such as cell growth/apoptosis, Ca2+ and redox homeostasis, and cell stemness. In cancer cells, mitochondria undergo peculiar functional and structural dynamics involved in the survival/death fate of the cell. Cancer cells use glycolysis to support macromolecular biosynthesis and energy production (“Warburg effect”); however, mitochondrial OXPHOS has been shown to be still active during carcinogenesis and even exacerbated in drug-resistant and stem cancer cells. This metabolic rewiring is associated with mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial metabolic enzymes (“oncometabolites”), alterations of ROS production and redox biology, and a fine-tuned balance between anti-/proapoptotic proteins. In cancer cells, mitochondria also experience dynamic alterations from the structural point of view undergoing coordinated cycles of biogenesis, fusion/fission and mitophagy, and physically communicating with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), through the Ca2+ flux, at the MAM (mitochondria-associated membranes) levels. This review addresses the peculiar mitochondrial metabolic and structural dynamics occurring in cancer cells and their role in coordinating the balance between cell survival and death. The role of mitochondrial dynamics as effective biomarkers of tumor progression and promising targets for anticancer strategies is also discussed.
Cancer; MAMs; Metabolic rewiring; Mitochondria; OXPHOS; ROS; Structural dynamics
Settore BIO/13 - Biologia Applicata
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/879727
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