Introduction: The aim of this report was to summarize observations, evaluate the feasibility, provide detailed information concerning proper techniques, and address limitations for non-recurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN) dissection and release during the robotic bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) for thyroidectomy. Materials and methods: The BABA approach was used in two cases of thyroidectomy in the setting of NRLN. Preoperative CT imaging findings suggesting the aberrant anatomy are reviewed and technical planning, inclusive of intraoperative nerve monitoring, was employed. Intraoperative videos with narrative discussion of technique for safe dissection are provided, along with supplementary video of additional technical guidance. Results: In both cases, the NRLNs were identified, dissected, and preserved. We dissected the proximal segment of each NRLN to its origin. We determined that the use of only the NRLN proximal to distal robotic dissection jeopardized the nerve. The BABA approach with the Type I NRLN is similar to the dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in transoral thyroidectomy. Due to interference with endoscopic viewing caused by the thyroid cartilage, the Type I NRLN is more challenging to manage both at the laryngeal entry point and its origin from the vagus nerve (VN). For the Type II NRLN, it is essential to identify its point of origin and the reflection of the nerve from the VN. Therefore, modification of nerve dissection to mirror open surgery with bidirectional nerve dissection assisted in avoidance of traction injury to the nerve. Conclusions: We presented a video, a detailed description of methods, and discussed limits for NRLN management in robotic BABA. This report included (i) a description of the aberrant anatomy and CT scans to inform surgeons of the possible NRLN locations, (ii) a description of a technique for using the nerve monitor in the robotic surgeries, and (iii) a description of the techniques used to isolate and protect the NRLN during the robotic surgery. In robotic BABA, our NRLN-sparing technique and degree included mainly a multi-directional nerve dissection (i.e., medial-grade, later-grade approach together with proximal to/from distal) using athermal technique. The NRLN-sparing technique is predominantly carried out in an anterior dissection plane.

Prevention of non-recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in robotic thyroidectomy : imaging and technique / D. Zhang, Y. Fu, L. Zhou, T. Wang, N. Liang, Y. Zhong, G. Dionigi, H.Y. Kim, H. Sun. - In: SURGICAL ENDOSCOPY. - ISSN 0930-2794. - 35:8(2021), pp. 4865-4872. [10.1007/s00464-021-08421-1]

Prevention of non-recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in robotic thyroidectomy : imaging and technique

G. Dionigi;
2021

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this report was to summarize observations, evaluate the feasibility, provide detailed information concerning proper techniques, and address limitations for non-recurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN) dissection and release during the robotic bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) for thyroidectomy. Materials and methods: The BABA approach was used in two cases of thyroidectomy in the setting of NRLN. Preoperative CT imaging findings suggesting the aberrant anatomy are reviewed and technical planning, inclusive of intraoperative nerve monitoring, was employed. Intraoperative videos with narrative discussion of technique for safe dissection are provided, along with supplementary video of additional technical guidance. Results: In both cases, the NRLNs were identified, dissected, and preserved. We dissected the proximal segment of each NRLN to its origin. We determined that the use of only the NRLN proximal to distal robotic dissection jeopardized the nerve. The BABA approach with the Type I NRLN is similar to the dissection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in transoral thyroidectomy. Due to interference with endoscopic viewing caused by the thyroid cartilage, the Type I NRLN is more challenging to manage both at the laryngeal entry point and its origin from the vagus nerve (VN). For the Type II NRLN, it is essential to identify its point of origin and the reflection of the nerve from the VN. Therefore, modification of nerve dissection to mirror open surgery with bidirectional nerve dissection assisted in avoidance of traction injury to the nerve. Conclusions: We presented a video, a detailed description of methods, and discussed limits for NRLN management in robotic BABA. This report included (i) a description of the aberrant anatomy and CT scans to inform surgeons of the possible NRLN locations, (ii) a description of a technique for using the nerve monitor in the robotic surgeries, and (iii) a description of the techniques used to isolate and protect the NRLN during the robotic surgery. In robotic BABA, our NRLN-sparing technique and degree included mainly a multi-directional nerve dissection (i.e., medial-grade, later-grade approach together with proximal to/from distal) using athermal technique. The NRLN-sparing technique is predominantly carried out in an anterior dissection plane.
BABA; Bilateral axillo-breast approach; IONM; Intraoperative neural monitoring; NRLN; Non-recurrent laryngeal nerve; Robotic-assisted surgery; Thyroidectomy
Settore MED/18 - Chirurgia Generale
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/878898
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