Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral dexamethasone in reducing kidney scars in infants with a first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods: Children aged between 2 and 24 months with their first presumed UTI, at high risk for kidney scarring based on procalcitonin levels (≥1 ng/mL), were randomly assigned to receive dexamethasone in addition to routine care or routine care only. Kidney scars were identified by kidney scan at 6 months after initial UTI. Projections of enrollment and follow-up completion showed that the intended sample size could not be reached before funding and time to complete the study ran out. An amendment to the protocol was approved to conduct a Bayesian analysis. Results: We randomized 48 children, of whom 42 had a UTI and 18 had outcome kidney scans (instead of 128 planned). Kidney scars were found in 0/7 and 2/11 patients in the treatment and control groups respectively. The probability that dexamethasone could prevent kidney scarring was 99% in the setting of an informative prior probability distribution (which fully incorporated in the final inference the information on treatment effect provided by previous studies) and 98% in the low-informative scenario (which discounted the prior literature information by 50%). The probabilities that dexamethasone could reduce kidney scar formation by up to 20% were 61% and 53% in the informative and low-informative scenario, respectively. Conclusions: Dexamethasone is highly likely to reduce kidney scarring, with a more than 50% probability to reduce kidney scars by up to 20%. Trial registration number: EudraCT number: 2013-000388-10; registered in 2013 (prospectively registered) Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Oral steroids for reducing kidney scarring in young children with febrile urinary tract infections : the contribution of Bayesian analysis to a randomized trial not reaching its intended sample size / L. Da Dalt, S. Bressan, F. Scozzola, E. Vidal, M. Gennari, C. La Scola, M. Anselmi, E. Miorin, P. Zucchetta, D. Azzolina, D. Gregori, G. Montini. - In: PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY. - ISSN 0931-041X. - 36:11(2021 Nov), pp. 3681-3692. [10.1007/s00467-021-05117-5]

Oral steroids for reducing kidney scarring in young children with febrile urinary tract infections : the contribution of Bayesian analysis to a randomized trial not reaching its intended sample size

G. Montini
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral dexamethasone in reducing kidney scars in infants with a first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods: Children aged between 2 and 24 months with their first presumed UTI, at high risk for kidney scarring based on procalcitonin levels (≥1 ng/mL), were randomly assigned to receive dexamethasone in addition to routine care or routine care only. Kidney scars were identified by kidney scan at 6 months after initial UTI. Projections of enrollment and follow-up completion showed that the intended sample size could not be reached before funding and time to complete the study ran out. An amendment to the protocol was approved to conduct a Bayesian analysis. Results: We randomized 48 children, of whom 42 had a UTI and 18 had outcome kidney scans (instead of 128 planned). Kidney scars were found in 0/7 and 2/11 patients in the treatment and control groups respectively. The probability that dexamethasone could prevent kidney scarring was 99% in the setting of an informative prior probability distribution (which fully incorporated in the final inference the information on treatment effect provided by previous studies) and 98% in the low-informative scenario (which discounted the prior literature information by 50%). The probabilities that dexamethasone could reduce kidney scar formation by up to 20% were 61% and 53% in the informative and low-informative scenario, respectively. Conclusions: Dexamethasone is highly likely to reduce kidney scarring, with a more than 50% probability to reduce kidney scars by up to 20%. Trial registration number: EudraCT number: 2013-000388-10; registered in 2013 (prospectively registered) Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Children; Dexamethasone; Kidney scars; Pyelonephritis; Urinary tract infections
Settore MED/38 - Pediatria Generale e Specialistica
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/2434/877557
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